Heat Exchanger Design Handbook  book cover
2nd Edition

Heat Exchanger Design Handbook

ISBN 9781138074668
Published April 10, 2017 by CRC Press
1260 Pages 709 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics––all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.

See What’s New in the Second Edition:

  • Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer’s association standards
  •  A new chapter on heat exchanger installation, operation, and maintenance practices
  • Classification chapter now includes coverage of scrapped surface-, graphite-, coil wound-, microscale-, and printed circuit heat exchangers
  • Thorough revision of fabrication of shell and tube heat exchangers, heat transfer augmentation methods, fouling control concepts and inclusion of recent advances in PHEs
  • New topics like EMbaffle®, Helixchanger®, and Twistedtube® heat exchanger, feedwater heater, steam surface condenser, rotary regenerators for HVAC applications, CAB brazing and cupro-braze radiators

Without proper heat exchanger design, efficiency of cooling/heating system of plants and machineries, industrial processes and energy system can be compromised, and energy wasted. This thoroughly revised handbook offers comprehensive coverage of single-phase heat exchangers—selection, thermal design, mechanical design, corrosion and fouling, FIV, material selection and their fabrication issues, fabrication of heat exchangers, operation, and maintenance of heat exchangers —all in one volume.

Table of Contents

Heat Exchangers: Introduction, Classification, and Selection


Construction of Heat Exchangers

Classification of Heat Exchangers

Selection of Heat Exchangers

Requirements of Heat Exchangers

Heat Exchanger Thermohydraulic Fundamentals

Heat Exchanger Thermal Circuit and Overall Conductance Equation

Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Analysis Methods

Thermal Effectiveness Charts

Symmetry Property and Flow Reversibility and Relation between the Thermal Effectiveness of Overall Parallel and Counterflow Heat Exchanger Geometries

Temperature Approach Meet, and Temperature Cross

Thermal Relation Formulas for Various Flow Arrangements and Pass Arrangements

Heat Exchanger Thermal Design

Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design Methodology

Design Procedure

Heat Exchanger Design Problems

Computer-Aided Thermal Design

Pressure-Drop Analysis, Temperature-Dependent Fluid Properties, Performance Failures, Flow Maldistribution, Fouling, and Corrosion

Cooperative Research Programs on Heat Exchanger Design

Uncertainties in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Compact Heat Exchangers

Classification and Construction Details of Tube-Fin Compact Heat Exchangers

Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers

Surface Geometrical Relations

Factors Influencing Tube-Fin Heat Exchanger Performance

Thermohydraulic Fundamentals of Finned Tube Heat Exchangers

Correlations for j and f factors of Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers

Fin Efficiency

Rating of a Compact Exchanger

Sizing of a Compact Heat Exchanger

Effect of Longitudinal Heat Conduction on Thermal Effectiveness

Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design

Construction Details for Shell and Tube Exchangers


Tube Arrangement


Tubesheet and Its Connection with Shell and Channel

Tube Bundle


Pass Arrangement

Fluid Properties and Allocation

Classification of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

TEMA System for Describing Heat Exchanger Types

Differential Thermal Expansion

TEMA Classification of Heat Exchangers Based on Service Condition

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Selection

Shellside Clearances

Tube-to-Baffle-Hole Clearance

Shell-to-Baffle Clearance

Shell-to-Bundle Clearance

Bypass Lanes



Heat Exchangers Used for Regeneration

Rotary Regenerative Air Preheater

Comparison of Recuperators and Regenerators

Considerations in Establishing a Heat Recovery System

Regenerator Construction Material

Thermal Design: Hydraulic Fundamentals

Thermal Design Theory

Mechanical Design

Industrial Regenerators and Heat Recovery Devices

Rotary Heat Exchangers for Space Heating

Plate Heat Exchangers and Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers

Plate Heat Exchanger Construction: General

Benefits Offered by Plate Heat Exchangers

Comparison between a Plate Heat Exchanger and a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Plate Heat Exchanger: Detailed Construction Features

Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger

Other Forms of Plate Heat Exchangers

Thermohydraulic Fundamentals of Plate Heat Exchangers

PHE Thermal Design Methods

Corrosion of Plate Heat Exchangers


Limitations of Plate Heat Exchangers

Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers

PLATECOIL® Prime Surface Plate Heat Exchangers

Heat Transfer Augmentation


Application of Augmented Surfaces

Principle of Single-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement

Approaches and Techniques for Heat Transfer Enhancement

Heat Transfer Mode

Passive Techniques

Active Techniques

Friction Factor

Pertinent Problems

Phase Change

Major Areas of Applications


Effect of Fouling on the Thermohydraulic Performance of Heat Exchangers

Costs of Heat Exchanger Fouling

Fouling Curves/Modes of Fouling

Stages of Fouling

Fouling Model

Parameters That Influence Fouling Resistances

Mechanisms of Fouling

Fouling Data

How Fouling Is Dealt while Designing Heat Exchangers

TEMA Fouling Resistance Values

Fouling Monitoring

Expert System

Fouling Prevention and Control

Cleaning of Heat Exchangers

Foulant Control by Chemical Additives

Control of Fouling from Suspended Solids

Cooling-Water Management for Reduced Fouling

Flow-Induced Vibration of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Principles of Flow-Induced Vibration

Discussion of Flow-Induced Vibration Mechanisms

Turbulence-Induced Excitation Mechanism

Fluid Elastic Instability

Acoustic Resonance

Vibration Evaluation Procedure

Design Guidelines for Vibration Prevention

Baffle Damage and Collision Damage

Empirical Checks for Vibration Severity

Impact and Fretting Wear

Determination of Hydrodynamic Mass, Natural Frequency, and Damping

Mechanical Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Standards and Codes

Basics of Mechanical Design

Stress Analysis, Classes, and Categories of Stress

Tubesheet Design

Cylindrical Shell, End Closures, and Formed Heads under Internal Pressure

Bolted Flanged Joint Design

Expansion Joints

Opening and Nozzles



Basics of Corrosion

Forms of Corrosion

Corrosion of Weldments

Corrosion Prevention and Control

Corrosion Monitoring

Cooling-Water Corrosion

Material Selection for Hydrogen Sulfide Environments

Material Selection and Fabrication

Material Selection Principles

Equipment Design Features

Raw Material Forms Used in the Construction of Heat Exchangers

Materials for Heat Exchanger Construction

Plate Steels

Pipes and Tubes

Weldability Problems

Hot Cracking

Laboratory Tests to Determining Susceptibility to Cracking

Service-Oriented Cracking

Welding-Related Failures

Selection of Cast Iron and Carbon Steels

Low-Alloy Steels

Quenched and Tempered Steels

Chromium–Molybdenum Steels

Stainless Steels

Ferritic Stainless Steels

Duplex Stainless Steels

Superaustenitic Stainless Steels with Mo + N

Aluminum Alloys: Metallurgy


Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys Metallurgy and Properties

Titanium: Properties and Metallurgy



Graphite, Glass, Teflon, and Ceramics





Hexoloy® Silicon Carbide Heat Exchanger Tube


Postweld Heat Treatment of Welded Joints in Steel Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers

Quality Control and Quality Assurance, Inspection, and Nondestructive Testing

Quality Control and Quality Assurance


Welding Design

Nondestructive Testing Methods

Heat Exchanger Fabrication

Introduction to Fabrication of the Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Details of Manufacturing Drawing

Stages of Heat Exchanger Fabrication

Forming of Heads and Closures


Elements of Brazing

Fundamentals of Brazing Process Control

Brazing of Aluminum

Brazing of Heat-Resistant Alloys and Stainless Steel

Quality Control, Inspection, and NDT of Brazed Heat Exchangers

Soldering of Heat Exchangers

Corrosion of Brazed and Soldered Joints

Evaluation of Design and Materials of Automotive Radiators

CuproBraze Heat Exchanger

Heat Exchanger Installation, Operation, and Maintenance





Periodical inspection of Unit

Indications of Fouling

Deterioration of Heat Exchanger Performance

NDT Methods to Inspect and Assess the Condition of Heat Exchanger and Pressure Vessel Components

Residual Life Assessment of Heat Exchangers by NDT Techniques

Pressure Vessel Failure

Professional Service Providers for Heat Exchangers



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Thulukkanam Kuppan works for the Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers, and is based in Chennai, India. He is author of the successful Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, First Edition published by Marcel-Dekker (now CRC Press) in 2000. Kuppan is a noted authority in the area of heat exchangers, pressure vessels, and railway technologies. He has years of practical experience through his work with the Indian Railways, and is well-known in industry and academia in South Asia.


"One of the most important strengths I noticed after reading Chapter 1 was the detailed description about the different kinds of heat exchangers. This kind of description is ideal for students and industry professionals. ... Looking at the contents and title, the author has made efforts to cover all aspects of heat exchanger design related to concepts, materials, geometry, fabrication, quality control and maintenance. …. I found it extremely useful as a design reference guide for industry professionals or course text book for engineering students."
––Rajeev Madazhy, Engineering Manager, Taper-Lok, Sugar Land, Texas, USA

"This book succinctly summarizes the essential information needed for thermal-hydraulic design/rating of heat exchangers. The author has done a most credible job of sifting through the vast body of work in the applied heat transfer literature to produce a lucid reference document."
––Dr. Kris Singh, Chief Technology Officer, Holtec International, Marlton, NJ