Heat Transfer : Thermal Management of Electronics book cover
1st Edition

Heat Transfer
Thermal Management of Electronics

ISBN 9781439814673
Published December 17, 2009 by CRC Press
528 Pages 291 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The continuing trend toward miniaturization and high power density electronics results in a growing interdependency between different fields of engineering. In particular, thermal management has become essential to the design and manufacturing of most electronic systems.

Heat Transfer: Thermal Management of Electronics details how engineers can use intelligent thermal design to prevent heat-related failures, increase the life expectancy of the system, and reduce emitted noise, energy consumption, cost, and time to market. Appropriate thermal management can also create a significant market differentiation, compared to similar systems. Since there are more design flexibilities in the earlier stages of product design, it would be productive to keep the thermal design in mind as early as the concept and feasibility phase.

The author first provides the basic knowledge necessary to understand and solve simple electronic cooling problems. He then delves into more detail about heat transfer fundamentals to give the reader a deeper understanding of the physics of heat transfer. Next, he describes experimental and numerical techniques and tools that are used in a typical thermal design process. The book concludes with a chapter on some advanced cooling methods.

With its comprehensive coverage of thermal design, this book can help all engineers to develop the necessary expertise in thermal management of electronics and move a step closer to being a multidisciplinary engineer.

Table of Contents


Semiconductor Technology Trends

Temperature-Dependent Failures

Importance of Heat Transfer in Electronics

Thermal Design Process


Energy, Energy Transfer, and Heat Transfer

Energy and Work

Macroscopic and Microscopic Energies

Energy Transfer and Heat Transfer

Equation of State


Principle of Conservation of Energy

First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy Balance for a Control Mass

Energy Balance for a Control Volume


Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Conduction Heat Transfer

Convection Heat Transfer

Radiation Heat Transfer


Thermal Resistance Network

Thermal Resistance Concept

Series Thermal Layers

Parallel Thermal Layers

General Resistance Network

Thermal Contact Resistance

Thermal Interface Materials

Spreading Thermal Resistance

Thermal Resistance of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)


Thermal Specification of Microelectronic Packages

Importance of Packaging

Packaging Types

Thermal Specifications of Microelectronic Packages

Package Thermal Resistance Network

Parameters Affecting Thermal Characteristics of a Package


Fins and Heat Sinks

Fin Equation

Fin Thermal Resistance, Effectiveness, and Efficiency

Fins with Variable Cross Sections

Heat Sink Thermal Resistance, Effectiveness, and Efficiency

Heat Sink Manufacturing Processes


Heat Conduction Equation

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation for a Plane Wall

General Heat Conduction Equation

Boundary and Initial Conditions

Steady-State Heat Conduction

Transient Heat Conduction

Lumped Systems


Fundamentals of Convection Heat Transfer

Types of Flows

Viscous Force, Velocity Boundary Layer, and Friction Coefficient

Temperature Boundary Layer and Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient

Conservation Equations

Boundary Layer Equations


Forced Convection Heat Transfer: External Flows

Normalized Boundary Layer Equations

Reynolds Number, Prandtl Number, Eckert Number, and Nusselt Number

Functional Forms of Friction Coefficient and Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient

Flow Over Flat Plates

Flow Across Cylinders

Cylindrical Pin-Fin Heat Sink

Procedure for Solving External Forced Convection Problems


Forced Convection Heat Transfer: Internal Flows

Mean Velocity and Mean Temperature

Laminar and Turbulent Pipe Flows

Entry Length and Fully Developed Flow

Pumping Power and Convection Heat Transfer in Internal Flows

Velocity Profiles and Friction Factor Correlations

Temperature Profiles and Convection Heat Transfer Correlations

Fans and Pumps

Plate-Fin Heat Sinks



Natural Convection Heat Transfer

Buoyancy Force and Natural Convection Flows

Natural Convection Velocity and Temperature Boundary Layers

Normalized Natural Convection Boundary Layer Equations

Laminar and Turbulent Natural Convection over a Vertical Flat Plate

Natural Convection Around Inclined and Horizontal Plates

Natural Convection Around Vertical and Horizontal Cylinders

Natural Convection in Enclosures

Natural Convection from Array of Vertical Plates

Mixed Convection


Radiation Heat Transfer

Radiation Intensity and Emissive Power

Blackbody Radiation

Radiation Properties of Surfaces

Solar and Atmospheric Radiations


View Factors

Radiation Heat Transfer Between Black Bodies

Radiation Heat Transfer Between Non-Black Bodies

Radiation Heat Transfer from a Plate-Fin Heat Sinks


Computer Simulations and Thermal Design

Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Equations: A Summary

Fundamentals of Computer Simulation

Turbulent Flows

Solution of Finite-Difference Equations

Commercial Thermal Simulation Tools

Importance of Modeling and Simulation in Thermal Design


Experimental Techniques and Thermal Design

Flow Rate Measurement Techniques

System Impedance Measurement

Fan and Pump Curve Measurements

Velocity Measurement Methods

Temperature Measurement Techniques

Acoustic Noise Measurements

Importance of Experimental Measurements in Thermal Design


Advanced Cooling Techniques

Heat Pipes

Liquid Cooling

Thermoelectric Coolers

Electrohydrodynamic Flow

Synthetic Jet





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Younes Shabany received his BS in mechanical engineering from Sharif University of Technology in Tehran, Iran, in 1991. He then went to Vancouver, Canada where he obtained his MS in mechanical engineering from the University of British Columbia in 1994. He came to the United States and received a Ph.D in mechanical engineering with a minor in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford University, California, in 1999. Dr. Shabany has over 18 years of experience in thermal-fluid engineering. He is currently Director of Thermal Engineering & Design and Thermal Architect in Advanced Technology Group at Flextronics International USA, Milpitas, California. In this position, he has been leading thermal design activities in Flextronics’ worldwide design centers on a variety of infrastructure, computing, consumer, automobile, medical, and power electronic products. Before Flextronics, he worked for Applied Thermal Technologies, Santa Clara, California, where he was the director for two years. While at Applied Thermal Technologies, he worked with over 60 companies and designed thermal solutions for about as many pieces of electronic equipment including telecom and networking equipment, desktop and laptop computers, biomedical equipment, and consumer products. Dr. Shabany has also been a lecturer at San Jose State University, California, since the summer of 2001. He has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in heat transfer and advanced mathematical analysis including his most favorite course, Heat Transfer in Electronics. He has also advised graduate students on their projects and theses.