3rd Edition

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Principles and Practice of Energy Efficient Design, Third Edition

    900 Pages 610 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Principles and Practice of Energy Efficient Design, Third Edition is structured to provide a rigorous and comprehensive technical foundation and coverage to all the various elements inherent in the design of energy efficient and green buildings. Along with numerous new and revised examples, design case studies, and homework problems, the third edition includes the HCB software along with its extensive website material, which contains a wealth of data to support design analysis and planning. Based around current codes and standards, the Third Edition explores the latest technologies that are central to design and operation of today’s buildings. It serves as an up-to-date technical resource for future designers, practitioners, and researchers wishing to acquire a firm scientific foundation for improving the design and performance of buildings and the comfort of their occupants. For engineering and architecture students in undergraduate/graduate classes, this comprehensive textbook:



    Background to the Building Sector and Energy Use Patterns

    A Bit of history

    Importance of Buildings in the US Economy and Other Countries

    Energy Use Patterns by Building Type and End Use

    Roles of Building Energy Professionals and HVAC Design Engineers

    Basic Concepts in Economics of Energy Efficiency

    Units and Conversions

    Order of Magnitude Calculations

    Basic Thermal Science

    Fluid and Thermodynamic Properties

    Determining Property Values

    Types of flow regimes

    Conservation of mass and momentum

    First law of thermodynamics

    Second law of thermodynamics

    Modes of heat transfer

    Conduction heat transfer

    Convection heat transfer

    Radiation heat transfer

    Evaporative and moisture transfer


    Human Thermal Comfort and Indoor Air Quality

    Indoor environmental quality (IEQ)

    Thermal comfort

    The perception of comfort

    Air quality and indoor contaminants

    Control of indoor air quality


    Solar Radiation


    Solar movement and basic angles

    Solar geometry with respect to local observer

    Extra-terrestrial insolation

    Effect of atmosphere

    ASHRAE clear sky irradiance model

    Transposition models for tilted and vertical surfaces

    Measured solar radiation data worldwide

    Statistical correlation models

    Heat Gains through Windows

    Importance and design considerations

    Optical properties

    Thermal properties

    Solar heat gains

    External and internal shading

    High-Performance glazing

    Infiltration and Natural Ventilation

    Importance and basic definitions

    Infiltration rates across building stock

    Basic flow equations

    Introduction and types of air flow models

    Crack flow equation

    Induced pressure differences

    Engineering component models for air infiltration

    Simplified physical models for single-zone air infiltration

    Multizone models

    Natural ventilation air flow through large openings

    Measuring air infiltration and inter-zone flows

    Infiltration heat recovery

    Steady State Heat Flows

    Load calculations

    Solar air temperature and instantaneous conduction heat gain

    Below grade heat transfer

    Internal heat gains

    Treatment of one zone spaces

    Multi-zoning in buildings

    Transient Heat Flow through Building Elements

    Basic concepts

    Numerical methods- finite difference

    Time series methods for conduction heat gains

    Thermal network models

    Frequency domain methods

    Heating and Cooling Design Load Calculations


    Winter and summer design conditions

    Design heating load calculation procedure

    Subtleties with cooling load calculations

    Transfer function method for cooling load calculations

    Heat balance method

    Radiant time series method

    Simplified Annual Energy Estimation Methods and Inverse Modeling

    General approaches

    Degree day method

    Models for estimating degree-days under different base temperature

    Bin method

    Advantages and limitations

    Inverse modeling

    Description of Typical Building HVAC Systems and Components

    Primary and secondary systems

    Types of secondary systems

    Broad classification of HVAC systems

    Unitary split systems

    Centralized systems

    District systems

    Thermal Principles Relevant to Equipment and Systems

    First Law: Heat and work interactions

    Second Law applied to ideal Carnot cycles

    Pure substances

    Homogeneous binary mixtures

    Convective heat transfer correlations

    Heat exchangers

    Psychrometric Properties and Processes

    Definition and importance of psychrometrics

    Composition and pressure of atmospheric air

    Psychrometric properties of moist air

    Analytical approach to determining moist-air properties

    The psychrometric chart

    Basic psychrometric processes


    Chillers and Heat Pump Cycles and Systems

    Standard Vapor Compression Cycle

    Modified and Actual VC Cycles

    Absorption Cooling

    Chiller Systems

    Air Source Heat Pumps

    Rating Standards

    Part Load Performance

    Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Decentralized Water Loop Heat Pumps

    Theoretical Performance Indices for Heating and Cooling


    Combustion Heating Equipment and Systems

    Principles of combustion



    Seasonal energy calculations

    Improving and monitoring thermal performance

    Combined heat and power systems

    Pumps, Fans and System Interactions

    Modified equation of motion

    Pressure losses in liquid and air systems

    Prime movers

    System and prime mover interactions

    Types of fans and their control

    Duct design methods

    Fluid flow measurement


    Cooling System Equipment



    Expansion devices

    Evaporators and condensers

    Heating air coils

    Wet cooling air coils

    Cooling towers

    Hydronic Distribution Equipment and Systems

    Hydronic system classification

    Types of hydronic distribution circuits

    Traditional terminal units

    Low temperature radiant panels

    Auxiliary heating equipment

    Piping system design

    Modulating valves and capacity control

    Large cooling systems

    Cool thermal energy storage

    All-Air Systems

    Basic principles

    Single zone single duct CAV systems

    Single zone single duct VAV systems

    All-air systems for multiple zones

    Design sizing and energy analysis

    Energy efficiency design and operation practices

    Energy penalties due to mixing of hot and cold streams


    Room Air Distribution and Hybrid Secondary Systems


    Basic air-water systems

    Air Distribution in Rooms

    Fully mixed room distribution systems

    Other types of room air distribution methods

    Chilled beams

    Hybrid secondary systems

    Evaporative cooling cycle and systems

    Desiccant cooling systems

    HVAC Control Systems

    Introductory concepts

    Modes of feedback control

    Basic control hardware

    Basic control system design considerations

    Examples of HVAC control systems

    Building Automation

    Topics in advanced control system design


    Lighting and Daylighting

    Principles of lighting

    Electric lighting


    Analysis of daylighting

    Design of buildings for daylighting

    Costing and Economic Analysis

    Comparing present and future costs

    Life cycle cost

    Economic evaluation criteria

    Complications of the decision process

    Cost estimation


    Chapter 24. Design for Energy Efficiency

    The Road to Efficiency

    Design Elements and Recommendations

    Residential Buildings

    Commercial Buildings: HVAC Systems

    Alternative Energy Technologies

    Uncertainty in Simulations

    Energy Benchmarking and Rating

    Drivers for Efficiency


    T. Agami Reddy is SRP Professor of Energy and Environment at Arizona State University with joint faculty appointments with the Design School and the School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment. During his 30 year career, he has also held faculty and research positions at Drexel University, Texas A&M University and Princeton University. He teaches and does research in the areas of sustainable energy systems (green buildings, HVAC&R, solar and resiliency/sustainability) and building energy data analytics. He is the author of two textbooks and has close to 200 refereed journal and conference papers, and several book chapters and technical research reports. He is a licensed mechanical engineer and Fellow of both ASME and ASHRAE. He received the ASHRAE Distinguished Service Award in 2008, and was the recipient of the 2014 Yellott Award from the ASME Solar Energy Division.

    Jan F. Kreider has served as a professor of engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder, and is a founding director of its Joint Center for Energy Management. He received his BSME degree (magna cum laude) from Case Western Reserve University, and his postgraduate degrees from the University of Colorado at Boulder. Dr. Kreider is the author of numerous college textbooks and more than 200 technical articles and reports, and has managed numerous building systems research projects. He is a fellow of the ASME, an active member of ASHRAE, and a winner of ASHRAE’s E.K. Campbell Award for excellence in building systems education. He is also the president of a consulting company specializing in energy system design and analysis.

    Peter Curtiss received his BSCE degree from Princeton University, and his advanced degrees from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He has served as an adjunct professor, and has worked as an engineering consultant. Dr. Curtiss has he author of over 40 technical journal articles, on subjects ranging from neural network modeling and control of building systems to solar radiation measurement. He has worked at research institutes in Israel, Portugal, and France as well as at a number of private engineering firms.

    Ari Rabl has served as a research scientist at the Centre d’Energetique of the l’Ecole de Mines in Paris, as well as research professor at the University of Colorado. He received his PhD in Physics from the University of California at Berkeley, and has worked at the Argonne National Laboratory, the Solar Energy Research Institute, and the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies at Princeton University. Dr. Rabl is the author of more than 50 journal articles, numerous technical reports, and holds 10 patents. He is a member of the American Physical Society and ASHRAE.

    "For me, the main advantage of Heating and Cooling of Buildings is its readability. It has been written in a manner that helps my students to understand concepts that they might otherwise have found difficult to understand….Chapter 9 is the most comprehensive coverage of heating and cooling design loads – this chapter is what got me interested in the textbook in the first place. The book can also be used by practicing HVAC engineers as a reference."

    --Tiyamike Ngonda, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa

    "Theory and governing equations are presented in an organized manner. The flow of text is quite easy to follow, and covers all topics needed to be taught in a design course."

    --Hessam Taherian, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

    ""I would highly recommend this book and instructor resources to professors for undergraduate or graduate level courses in HVAC design and building energy science, with the expectation that students would keep this book and use it on a day-to-day basis in their careers."

    ----Andy Walker, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, USA

    "The authors have taken great care to update their previous version of this book with the inclusion of several relevant hardware related application chapters and references to current ASHRAE standards."

    ---Kevin R. Anderson, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, USA