1st Edition

Herbal Treatment of Major Depression Scientific Basis and Practical Use

By Scott D Mendelson Copyright 2020
    448 Pages 20 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    446 Pages 20 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This unique volume presents new understandings of the neurochemical nature of major depression, and how herbs and their constituent flavonoids and terpenes appear to address some of the mechanisms now thought to be involved. It explores how recent studies of the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine inform neuroscientists about deep intracellular mechanisms of antidepressant action that have little to do with simple enhancement of monoaminergic activity. These mechanisms include actions on PI3K, Akt, mTOR, GSK3, BDNF, and other intracellular pathways. New theories of the pathophysiology underlying major depression, such as oxidative damage, inflammation, stress and insulin resistance are then explored.

    Key Features:

    • Focuses on oxidative damage, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome.

    • Explains that a significant percentage of people treated for major depression obtain little if any relief from standard antidepressant medications.

    • These facts lead to discussion of herbs that can be used to treat major depression, as well as consideration of the scientific basis for how these herbs act.

    • The antidepressant properties of 66 herbs are discussed, along with dosing and safety information.

    Table of Contents

    1 Major Depressive Disorder: A brief history of Western medical treatment

    2 How antidepressants work, but often do not

    3 Clues revealed by ketamine

    4 New understanding of the nature and causes of Major Depressive Disorder

    4.1 Oxidative and nitrosative damage

    4.2 Inflammation

    4.3 Chronic Stress

    4.4 Insulin resistance

    4.5 Metabolic Syndrome

    4.6 Summary

    5 Phytochemicals: Some basics

    5.1 Carbohydrates

    5.2 Lipids

    5.3 Terpenes

    5.4 Phenolics

    5.41 Flavonoids

    5.42 Non-flavonoid phenolics

    5.5 Alkaloids

    5.6 Summary

    6 Models and paradigms for assessment of antidepressant effects

    6.1 Antioxidant Effects

    6.2 Anti-inflammatory Effects

    6.3 Antidiabetic/Anti-Metabolic Syndrome Effects

    6.4 Preclinical antidepressant-like effects

    6.4.1 Forced Swim Test

    6.4.2 Tail suspension Test

    6.4.3 Sucrose Consumption Test

    6.4.4 Test Conditions

    7 Herbs with antidepressant effects

    7.1 Allium sativum (Garlic)

    7.2 Angelica sinensis

    7.3 Apium graveolens (celery)

    7.4 Astragalus membranaceus

    7.5 Atractylodes macrocephala

    7.6 Avena sativa (common oat)

    7.7 Bacopa monnieri

    7.8 Borage officinalis (European Borage)

    7.9 Bupleurum chinense

    7.10 Camellia sinensis (Tea)

    7.11 Cannabis

    7.12 Cecropia

    7.13 Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola)

    7.14 Chrysactinia Mexicana

    7.15 Cimicifuga racemosa (Black cohosh)

    7.16 Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon)

    7.17 Coffea arabica (Coffee)

    7.18 Coriandrum sativum (Coriander)

    7.19 Corydalis yanhusuo

    7.20 Crocus sativa (Saffron)

    7.21 Curcuma longa (Turmeric)

    7.22 Cyperus rotundus

    7.23 Echium amoenum

    7.24 Eleutherococcus senticoccus (Siberian Ginseng)

    7.25 Epimedium brevicornum (Horny goat weed)

    7.26 Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)

    7.27 Ginkgo biloba

    7.28 Glycyrrhiza (licorice)

    7.29 Hedyosmum Brasiliense

    7.30 Hemerocallis citrina (Daylily)

    7.31 Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane)

    7.32 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Hibiscus)

    7.33 Humulus lupulus (Hops)

    7.34 Huperzia serrata

    7.35 Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort)

    7.36 Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba mate)

    7.37 Lavandula (Lavender)

    7.38 Ligusticum chuanxiong

    7.39 Magnolia officinalis

    7.40 Matricaria recutita (Chamomile)

    7.41 Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)

    7.42 Mimosa pudica

    7.43 Ocimum basilicum (Sweet Basil)

    7.44 Origanum vulgare (Oregano)

    7.46 Panax ginseng (Ginseng)45 Paeonia lactiflora (Peony)

    7.47 Passifloraceae incarnata (Passionflower)

    7.48 Piper methysticum (Kava)

    7.49 Piper nigrum (Black Pepper)

    7.50 Polygala tenuifolia

    7.51 Poria cocos

    7.52 Psoralea corylifolia

    7.53 Rhodiola rosea

    7.54 Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)

    7.55 Salvia divinorum

    7.56 Sceletium tortuosum

    7.57 Schisandra chinensis

    7.58 Scutellaria lateriflora (Skullcap)

    7.59 Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle)

    7.60 Theobroma cacao (Chocolate)

    7.61 Tilia (Linden)

    7.62 Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek)

    7.63 Valeriana officinalis (Valerian)

    7.64 Verbena officinalis (Vervain)

    7.65 Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste tree)

    7.66 Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha)

    8 The antidepressant effects of Yueue, and the herbs of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    8.1 Fundamental considerations

    8.2 Yueju

    8.3 Xiao yao san

    8.4 Chai hu shu gan

    8.5 Gan mai da zao

    8.6 Gui pi

    8.7 Shi wei wen dan tang

    8.8 Ban xia hou pu

    8.9 Chai hu jia long gu mu li

    8.10 Tiao qi

    8.11 Yi pi

    8.12 Tang shen kang

    8.13 Kai xin san

    8.14 Shu gan jie yu

    8.15 Si ni san

    8.16 Wu ling

    8.17 Other TCM herbs used in the treatment of MDD

    8.18 A medical, "Theory of Everything."

    9 Flavonoids with preclinical antidepressant-like effects

    9.1 Amentoflavone

    9.2 Apigenin

    9.3 Astilbin

    9.4 Baicalein and Baicalin

    9.5 Chrysin

    9.6 7,8,Dihydroxyflavone

    9.7 Fisetin

    9.8 Heptomethoxyflavone

    9.9 Hesperidin and hesperitin

    9.10 Hyperoside

    9.11 Icariin

    9.12 Isosakurentin-5-O-rutinoside

    9.13 Kaempferol

    9.14 Liquiritin and Isoliquirtin

    9.15 Luteolin

    9.16 Miquelianin

    9.17 Myricetin

    9.18 Naringenin and naringin

    9.19 Nobiletin

    9.20 Orientin

    9.21 Quercetin

    9.22 Vitexin

    9.23 Wogonin and wogonoside

    9.24 Synthetic flavonoids

    9.25 Mechanisms of flavonoid antidepressant action

    10 Preclinical antidepressant-like effects of terpenes, polyphenolics, and other non-flavonoid phytochemcials

    10.1 Amyrins

    10.2 Bacopasides

    10.3 Berberine

    10.4 3-n-Butylphthalide

    10.5 Caffeic Acid

    10.6 ß-Carotene

    10.7 Carvacrol

    10.8 ß-Caryophyllene

    10.9 Chlorogenic acid

    10.10 Crocin

    10.11 Curcumin

    10.12 3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose

    10.13 Ellagic acid

    10.14 Eugenol

    10.15 Ferulic acid

    10.16 Gallic acid

    10.17 Gastrodin

    10.18 Genipin

    10.19 Ginsenoside Rg1

    10.20 Glycyrrhizin

    10.21 4-Hydroxyisoleucine

    10.22 Hyperfoliatin

    10.23 Linalool

    10.24 Macranthol

    10.25 Methyl jasmonate

    10.26 Mitragynine

    10.27 Oleanolic acid

    10.28 Orcinol

    10.29 Paeoniflorin

    10.30 Paeonol

    10.31 Palmatine

    10.32 Plumbagin

    10.33 Podoandin

    10.34 Punarnavine

    10.35 Resveratrol

    10.36 Riparin

    10.37 Rosmarinic acid

    10.38 Safranal

    10.39 Salidroside

    10.40 Sarsasapogenin

    10.41 Scopoletin

    10.42 Sulphoraphane

    10.43 Tetrandrine

    10.44 L-theanine

    10.45 Uliginosin B

    10.46 Ursolic acid

    10.47 Vanillin

    11 Choosing herbal treatments

    11.1 Efficacy of herbal treatments of MDD

    11.2 Herbs for which there is less than compelling evidence of efficacy

    11.3 Combinations of Herbs

    11.4 Addressing Comorbidities

    11.4.1 Anxiety and insomnia

    11.4.2 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    11.4.3 Premenstrual and perimenopausal symptoms

    11.4.4 Dementia

    11.4.5 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    11.4.6 Fatigue, lack of resiliency and General Malaise

    11.5 Augmentation of standard antidepressant treatment with herbs.

    11.6 Safety


    Currently a practicing psychiatrist in Roseburg, Oregon, the author earned a Ph.D. in Biopsychology at The University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, British Columbia. He then worked for three years as a post-doctoral fellow at The Rockefeller University in the Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology under Bruce McEwen, Ph.D. During his doctoral work and as a post-doctoral fellow, he published 24 papers on the subjects of serotonergic and hormonal regulation of sexual behavior, and on the effects of stress on serotonin receptor subtypes in the brain. The author then attended medical school at The University of Illinois, and after graduating in 1996, he did his residency in psychiatry at The University of Virginia. In 2007, Elsevier published his first book, Metabolic Syndrome and Psychiatric Illness: Interactions, pathophysiology, assessment and treatment. In 2009, M. Evans published his second book, Beyond Alzheimer’s: How to avoid the modern epidemic of dementia

    Scott Mendelson, MD, PhD, has written a landmark volume in the Clinical Pharmacognosy series on Botanical Medicines for CRC Press. Why is this a landmark book? It thoughtfully reviews theories of the mechanisms of activity for antidepressants, including ketamine, and lays out the evidence for herbal activity through those mechanisms.

    . . . .

    I highly recommend this book for psychiatrists and other health professionals treating depression. Furthermore, phytopharmaceutical researchers interested in developing new treatments will find valuable ideas to pursue

    Richard P. Brown, Review of Herbal Treatment of Major Depression: Scientific Basis and Practical Use, Psychiatric Times, 20th January 2020

    Full Review: www.psychiatrictimes.com/film-and-book-reviews/herbal-treatment-major-depression-scientific-basis-and-practical-use