High-Pressure Physics: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

High-Pressure Physics

1st Edition

By John Loveday

Chapman and Hall/CRC

342 pages | 144 B/W Illus.

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Description

High-pressure science has undergone a revolution in the last 15 years. The development of intense new x-ray and neutron sources, improved detectors, new instrumentation, greatly increased computation power, and advanced computational algorithms have enabled researchers to determine the behavior of matter at static pressures in excess of 400 GPa. Shock-wave techniques have allowed access to the experimental pressure-temperature range beyond 1 TPa and 10,000 K.

High-Pressure Physics introduces the current state of the art in this field. Based on lectures presented by leading researchers at the 63rd Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics, the book summarizes the latest experimental and theoretical techniques. Highlighting applications in a range of physics disciplines—from novel materials synthesis to planetary interiors—this book cuts across many areas and supplies a solid grounding in high-pressure physics.

Chapters cover a wide array of topics and techniques, including:

  • High-pressure devices
  • The design of pressure cells
  • Electrical transport experiments
  • The fabrication process for customizing diamond anvils
  • Equations of state (EOS) for solids in a range of pressures and temperatures
  • Crystallography, optical spectroscopy, and inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) techniques
  • Magnetism in solids
  • The internal structure of Earth and other planets
  • Measurement and control of temperature in high-pressure experiments
  • Solid state chemistry and materials research at high pressure
  • Liquids and glasses
  • The study of hydrogen at high density

A resource for graduate students and young researchers, this accessible reference provides an overview of key research areas and applications in high-pressure physics.

Reviews

"… an excellent background and literature review for each topic. The topics themselves are a good mix of experimental and theoretical … viewed as an introductory text, this is an excellent book, with something for anyone about to start working in the general area of high pressure science. I can strongly recommend it to all new Ph.D. students who should be encouraged to read it all … as there are many useful insights to be gained by studying a subject like this ‘in the round.’"

—Matt Probert, Contemporary Physics, 2013

"… a very readable book. containing very good technical descriptions, data, graphs on material properties, and some theory with a focus on providing the reader with useful and relevant information on high·pressure physics. This is an outstanding book for someone new to this research area."

—IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine

Table of Contents

High-Pressure Devices

Introduction

The cylinder: the most common high-pressure device

Belt type apparatuses

Opposed anvil devices: Bridgman, Drickamer and profiled anvils

Multi-anvil devices

The diamond anvil cell

Other gem anvil cells: sapphire, moissanite and zirconia cells

Pressure transmitting media

Glossary

Instrumentation Development for High-Pressure Research

Introduction

Design flow

Pressure generation and the types of pressure cells

Materials properties

Materials selection

Technical drawings

Finite element analysis

Machining and tolerances

Testing and safety certification

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure

Introduction

Electrical Measurement Techniques with Diamond Anvil Cells

Superconductivity under High Pressure

Iron

Oxygen

Conductivity Experiments at High-Pressure and Very High Temperatures

Single-Crystal Experiments

Hall Effect and Magnetoresistance

Photoconductivity

Other Uses of Electrical Transport Techniques

Future Directions

Advances in Customized Diamond Anvils

Introduction

Laser-Drilled Diamond Anvils

“Designer” Diamond Anvils

Designer Anvil Fabrication Process Steps

Types of Designer Anvils

“Intelligent” Diamond Anvils (iDAC)

Integrated Circuit Technique using Alumina Films

Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Systems

Further Examples of the Use of Customized Anvils in High-Pressure Experiments

Future Prospects

Further Development of CVD Diamond Growth Technology

Equations of State for Solids in Wide Ranges of Pressure and Temperature

Introduction

Parametric EOS forms

Thermodynamic modeling

Comparison with experimental results

Comparison of thermodynamic and parametric formulations

Conclusions

High Pressure Crystallography

Introduction

Technical developments

Optical Spectroscopy at High Pressure

Introduction

General aspects

The Raman and IR spectroscopy set-up

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

Concluding remarks

Inelastic X-ray Scattering

Introduction

General aspects

Instrumentation

Systems

Optical Spectroscopy in the Diamond Anvil Cell

Introduction

Spectroscopy units, spectral ranges, and dimension constraints

Basic principles

Techniques

Probing of intra- and inter- molecular interactions under pressure – The example of hydrogen

Optical properties of minerals in the deep Earth interior

Prospects

Magnetism and High Pressure

Magnetic equation of state, feedback, instability

Types of magnetic interactions

Magnetic phase transitions

Examples of high pressure magnetic measurement methods

The Deep Earth

Introduction

Geophysical constraints

Phase transitions

Refining the chemical composition of the deep reservoirs

Core dynamics

Differentiation of the Earth

Conclusions

Planetary Interiors

Introduction

Terrestrial planets

Giant planets

Conclusion

Temperature Measurement and Control in High-Pressure Experiments

Introduction

Resistance heating and the thermocouple principle for temperature measurements

“Large volume” devices and sample assemblies

Blackbody radiation and laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments

Solid State and Materials Chemistry at High Pressure

Abstract

Introduction

Diamond and related materials

High pressure mineralogy and solid state materials research

Superconductors, elemental alloys and high-hardness metals

Clathrates and new “light element” solids

Summary

Liquids and Amorphous Materials

Introduction

Definitions

Exploring the liquid state

Amorphous materials

The glass transition

The influence of pressure

Metastable melting

Two state models

Liquid fragility

Polyamorphic systems

Experimental techniques

The role of diffraction

Glass and liquid structure

Case studies

Transitions in the strong amorphous network

Non-oxide glasses: GeSe2

Future directions

Dense Hydrogen

Introduction

The isolated molecule and low density solid

Hydrogen under pressure

High pressures and temperatures

Conclusions

About the Series

Scottish Graduate Series

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
SCI077000
SCIENCE / Solid State Physics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science