1st Edition

Highway Bridge Superstructure Engineering LRFD Approaches to Design and Analysis

By Narendra Taly Copyright 2015
    964 Pages 276 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    A How-To Guide for Bridge Engineers and Designers

    Highway Bridge Superstructure Engineering: LRFD Approaches to Design and Analysis provides a detailed discussion of traditional structural design perspectives, and serves as a state-of-the-art resource on the latest design and analysis of highway bridge superstructures. This book is applicable to highway bridges of all construction and material types, and is based on the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) philosophy. It discusses the theory of probability (with an explanation leading to the calibration process and reliability), and includes fully solved design examples of steel, reinforced and prestressed concrete bridge superstructures. It also contains step-by-step calculations for determining the distribution factors for several different types of bridge superstructures (which form the basis of load and resistance design specifications) and can be found in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

    Fully Realize the Basis and Significance of LRFD Specifications

    Divided into six chapters, this instructive text:

    • Introduces bridge engineering as a discipline of structural design
    • Describes numerous types of highway bridge superstructures systems
    • Presents a detailed discussion of various types of loads that act on bridge superstructures and substructures
    • Discusses the methods of analyses of highway bridge superstructures
    • Includes a detailed discussion of reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges, and slab-steel girder bridges

    Highway Bridge Superstructure Engineering: LRFD Approaches to Design and Analysis can be used for teaching highway bridge design courses to undergraduate- and graduate-level classes, and as an excellent resource for practicing engineers.


    Structural Design Philosophies

    General Design Concepts

    Fundamentals of Structural Design Philosophies

    Limit States Design Philosophies

    LRFD Specifications for Highway Bridges

    Differences between Various Design Methods: Summary

    Historical Review of AASHTO Specifications for Highway Bridges

    AASHTO LRFD Highway Bridge Design Specifications and Design Philosophies

    AASHTO Interim Specifications

    Scope of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications

    Commentary to AASHTO LRFD Specifications

    General Comments



    Highway Bridge Superstructure Systems


    AASHTO LRFD Spec-Specific Highway Bridge Superstructures

    Description and Design Characteristics of Superstructure Systems in Table 2.1


    Bridge Site and Geometry


    Consideration of Future Widening


    Bridge Esthetics


    Loads on Highway Bridge Structures


    AASHTO LRFD Highway Bridge Design Philosophy

    Load Factors and Load Combinations for Construction Loads

    Components of a Highway Bridge Structure

    Dead Loads on a Highway Bridge Superstructure

    Construction Loads

    Live Loads on Highway Bridge Superstructures

    Dynamic Effects of Vehicular Live Load

    Fatigue Loading

    Pedestrian Loads

    Application of Design Live Loads on a Bridge Superstructure

    Design Live Loads in Longitudinal Girders Supporting Bridge Decks

    Envelopes for Moment and Shear Values

    Tire Contact Area

    Rail Transit Loads

    Centrifugal Force (CE)

    Braking Force (BR)

    Vehicular Collision Force (CT)

    Ice and Snow Loads

    Wind Loads (WL and WS)

    Earthquake Forces (EQ)

    Earth Pressure (EH, ES, LS, and DD)

    Force Effects Due to Superimposed Deformations: TU, TG, SH, CR, SE, and PS

    Miscellaneous Forces for Design Considerations

    Friction Forces (FR)



    Structural Analysis of Highway Bridge Superstructures


    Load Path in Bridge Structures

    Analysis for Dead Load on Bridge Superstructures

    Methods of Structural Analysis for Live Load on Bridge Superstructures

    Approximate Analysis Methods for Live Loads: The Distribution Factor Concept

    Considerations for Live Load Distribution Factors for Common Types of Bridge Superstructures

    Calculations of Distribution Factors for Beams/Girders of Typical Superstructures

    Special Analysis for Distribution Factors for Bending Moments and Shears in Exterior Girders

    Correction Factors for Bridge Skew

    Distribution Factors for Fatigue Limit State

    Distribution Factors for Deflection Limit State

    Illustrative Examples: Distribution Factors for Bending Moment and Shear

    Application of Live Distribution Factors for Design Purposes

    Distribution Factors for Special Loads with Other Traffic Loads

    Live Load Distribution Factors for Bending Moments and Shear in Transverse Floor Beams

    Methods of Refined Analysis

    Distribution of Lateral Loads in Multibeam Bridges

    Analysis of Concrete Slabs and Slab-Type Bridges for LRFD Live Loads



    Concrete Bridges


    Concrete Bridges and Aesthetics

    Corrosion of Concrete Bridges

    Material Properties

    Design Procedures for Flexure in Section 5 of LRFD Specifications

    Limits of Reinforcement: Art

    Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement: Art

    Service Limit State

    Fatigue Limit State


    Estimating the Area of Required Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcement in Concrete Sections

    Slab-Type Concrete Bridges and Concrete Decks

    Concrete Decks

    Design Examples

    Design of Reinforced Concrete T-Beam Superstructures

    Design of Deck Overhang and Barrier Walls

    Slab-Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridges



    Slab–Steel Girder Bridges


    Structural Forms and Characteristics of Steel Bridges

    Corrosion of Steel Bridges

    Construction Considerations

    Mechanical Properties of Steel for Highway Bridges

    Hybrid Steel Girders

    Noncomposite and Composite Sections

    Shored and Unshored Construction

    Resistance Factors

    Design Provisions for I-Section Flexural Members

    Fatigue and Fracture Considerations

    Design of Noncomposite Slab–Steel Girder Superstructures

    Composite Slab–Steel Beam Superstructures

    Design of Composite Slab-Girder Superstructures





    Narendra Taly, Ph.D, P.E., F.ASCE, is a professor (emeritus) of civil engineering at California State University, Los Angeles. He has more than 55 years of experience in the fields of civil and structural engineering design. This is his seventh book in the field of structural engineering.

    "Professor Taly’s well-organized, well-balanced and thorough book is a welcome and timely addition to the technical literature of bridge engineering. The book distinguishes itself by its focused approach to practical highway bridge superstructure design. In addition to the thorough outline of specification development, load application, superstructure analysis and design, the book includes extensive worked examples of practical concrete and steel superstructures."
    —John F. Unsworth, P.Eng., Chief Bridge Engineer, Canadian Pacific

    "A well-presented and logically organized book of state-of-the-art knowledge of AASHTO LRFD-based highway superstructure design… Generally speaking, ‘Bridge Engineering’ encompasses many fields, such as planning, design, construction and maintenance…"
    —Lian Duan, Ph.D., P.E., Senior Bridge Engineer and Steel Committee Chair, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, California, USA