Highway Engineering : Pavements, Materials and Control of Quality book cover
1st Edition

Highway Engineering
Pavements, Materials and Control of Quality

ISBN 9781138893764
Published July 26, 2017 by CRC Press
924 Pages 369 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

An International Textbook, from A to Z

Highway Engineering: Pavements, Materials and Control of Quality covers the basic principles of pavement management, highlights recent advancements, and details the latest industry standards and techniques in the global market. Utilizing the author’s more than 30 years of teaching, researching, and consulting experience, this text focuses on the design, construction, maintenance, and management of pavements for roads and highways, and covers the main topics in highway engineering. The author integrates pavement materials, material testing for acceptability and quality assurance, asphalt mix design, flexible and rigid pavement design, construction, maintenance and strengthening procedures, quality control of production and acceptance of asphalts, pavement evaluation, asphalt plants, and pavement recycling. He also includes both European and American (ASTM and AASHTO) standards and practice, and is extensively illustrated with references, tables, graphs, charts, and photographs.

The book contains 18 chapters that cover:

  • Soils for roadworks
  • Aggregates for unbound, hydraulically bound materials, and bituminous mixtures
  • Bitumen and bituminous binders
  • Laboratory tests and properties of paving bitumen and bitumen emulsion
  • Hot and cold bituminous mixtures
  • Fundamental mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures and testing
  • Production, transportation, laying, and compaction of bituminous mixtures
  • Quality control and acceptance of bituminous mixtures
  • Methods for determining stresses and strains in pavements
  • Pavement design and construction
  • Thickness design methodologies for flexible and rigid pavements
  • Pavement maintenance
  • Rehabilitation and strengthening
  • Pavement evaluation
  • Equipment for measuring surface and structural characteristics
  • Pavement management
  • Pavement recycling

Written for civil engineering students and engineers engaged in highway projects or laboratory testing, Highway Engineering: Pavements, Materials and Control of Quality covers pavement engineering comprehensively as a textbook for undergraduates and graduates, and a valuable reference for practicing professionals.

Table of Contents


The formation of soils

Soil fractions

Physical properties of soils

Basic soil tests

Soil classification

Soil bearing capacity tests

Plate bearing test – modulus of reaction (k)

Resistance R value test

Elastic modulus and resilient modulus of soils

Compaction of soil materials on site

Density tests in situ




Crushed aggregates

Natural aggregates


Mine waste

Demolition materials

Artificial aggregates

Recycled (pulverised) aggregates

Aggregate sizes

Aggregate tests

Geometrical properties determination tests

Physical properties determination tests

Chemical properties tests

Petrographic description of aggregates

Blending two or more aggregates


Bitumen, bituminous binders and anti-stripping agents


Natural asphalt


Manufactured bitumen

Cut-back and fluxed bituminous binders

Bitumen emulsions

Anti-stripping agents

Modified bitumens and special bitumens

Handling of bituminous binders


Laboratory tests and properties of bitumen and bitumen emulsion


Penetration test

Softening point test (Left)

Penetration index

Ductility test

Force ductility test

Elastic recovery test


Fraass breaking point

Heukelom chart – bitumen test data chart

Resistance to hardening tests

Flash and fire point – cleveland open cup method

Solubility test

Tensile test

Cohesion with pendulum test

Storage stability test

Mineral matter or ash in asphalt materials

Capillary-stoppered pycnometer test for determination of density and specific gravity of bitumen

Determination of water in bitumen by distillation method

Bitumen emulsion tests

Mechanical properties of bitumen

Performance-graded asphalt binder tests


Hot asphalts


Determination and role of asphalts

Characteristic types of asphalts

Asphalt concrete

AC for very thin layers

Porous asphalt

HRA in accordance to European standards

Stone mastic asphalt

Mastic asphalt

Soft asphalt

High-modulus asphalts

Warm mix asphalts

Other types of asphalts


Cold asphalts


Characteristic types of cold asphalts

Dense-graded cold asphalts

Open-graded cold asphalts

Production of cold asphalt mixtures

Laying and compaction of cold asphalt mixtures

Quality control of cold asphalt mixtures

Cold asphalts for slurry surfacing


Annex 6.A

Coating test

Annex 6.B

Modified Marshall mix design for dense- graded cold asphalt (DGCA)

Specimen production and Marshall testing

Annex 6.C

Soaking test – capillary water absorption test

Fundamental mechanical properties of asphalts and laboratory tests


Stiffness modulus of asphalts

Types of loading

Determination of stiffness modulus and other moduli

Prediction of asphalt stiffness

Permanent deformation of asphalts

Fatigue of asphalts


Production, transportation, laying and compaction of hot mix asphalts


Types of asphalt production plants

Batch plants

Drum-mix plants

Transportation of hot mix asphalts


Compaction of asphalts


Annex .A

Quality control of production and acceptance of asphalts



Methods of material sampling

Inspection and testing of incoming constituent materials and delivered product

Acceptance of delivered and laid asphalt

Methods for determination of binder content


Layers of flexible pavement



Capping layer

Sub-base course

Base course

Asphalt layers

Poisson’s ratio of paving and subgrade materials


Methods determining stresses and deflections


Traffic and traffic assessment


Axle loads

Vehicle classification

Overloaded vehicles

Measurement of vehicle axle load

Contact area and pressure

The concept of equivalent standard axle loading –equivalency factors for flexible pavements

Equivalency factors for rigid pavements


Flexible pavement design methodologies


Design criteria for flexible pavements

Asphalt institute pavement design methodology

AASHTO pavement design methodology

UK flexible pavement design methodology

AUTh flexible pavement design methodology

Shell flexible pavement design methodology

French flexible pavement design methodology

Australian flexible pavement design methodology

The Nottingham University/mobil design method

Other pavement design methods

AASHTO mechanistic–empirical pavement design guide


Rigid pavements and design methodologies


Subgrade and layers of rigid pavements

Consideration of stresses that developed on a concrete slab

Cracking of fresh and hardened concrete

Joints in concrete pavements

Contraction joints

Expansion joints

Sealants and joint fillers

Warping joints

Joints attributed to interruption of works

The function of steel reinforcement

Amount and position of reinforcement

Jointed reinforced concrete pavements

Continuously reinforced concrete pavements

Pre-stressed concrete

Fibre-reinforced concrete

Rigid pavement design methodologies

UK rigid pavement design methodology

AASHTO rigid pavement design methodology

Australian rigid pavement design methodology

MEPDG for rigid pavements

Construction of rigid pavements


Pavement maintenance rehabilitation and strengthening



Maintenance, rehabilitation and pavement life

Typical surface distresses in flexible pavements

Cracking in flexible pavements

Retardation of reflective cracking treatments and asphalt reinforcement techniques

Surface distortions in flexible pavements

Disintegration of flexible pavements

Loss of surface skid resistance

Typical distresses in rigid pavements

Cracking of rigid pavements

Surface deformation in rigid pavements

Disintegration of rigid pavements

Loss of surface skid resistance

Surface dressing

Pavement strengthening

Asphalt overlay design methods over flexible pavements

Asphalt overlay over rigid pavement

Concrete overlay over rigid or flexible pavement

AASHTO overlay design method


Pavement evaluation and measurement of functional and structural characteristics

Pavement evaluation

Functional evaluation by visual condition survey

Functional evaluation by devices measuring surface characteristics

Structural evaluation of pavements


Pavement management


Terms – definitions

Purpose of pavement management

Levels of pavement management analysis

Pavement management components

Software for pavement management

Pavement recycling


What pavement recycling is offering

Pavement recycling methods

Cold milling (planning)

Hot recycling

Cold recycling

Evaluation of RA

Suitability of RA

Hot recycling mix design

Cold recycling mix design

Pavement design using recycled asphalt

Recycling of rigid pavements



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Dr. Athanassios Nikolaides is a professor at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, and director of the Highway Engineering Laboratory in the Department of Civil Engineering. He has published more than 90 papers in journals and conference proceedings, presented more than 40 additional papers at various seminars, and published three books in Greek. He is a member of the editorial advisory panel of the ICE (UK) Journal of Construction Materials, and the founder and president of the International Conference on Bituminous Mixtures and Pavements and has served as a consultant to several organizations and corporations in Greece, Europe, and Indonesia.



"… a complete book covering all aspects of road pavements –from constituent materials, to design and maintenance; management to recycling. … a valuable resource for civil engineering students as well as researchers and practitioners working in asphalt and pavement engineering. As a bonus, readers will also find in-depth explanations of major standards from the USA, UK, EUROPE and Australia on material characterization, design, and management."
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers

"The author has crafted this book to serve as a "one-stop centre" for any information related to highway engineering. It begins with raw materials for asphalt, mix design, asphalt production, construction and maintenance. This book tells all and is beneficial to academics and practising engineers as well."
—Professor Dr. Meor Othman Hamzah, Universiti Sains Malaysia

"This is a great book. It combines state-of-the art scientific knowledge with practical easy-to-use guidelines for highway engineers."
—Professor Ezio Santagata, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

"The author has developed a very good work. He has compared the main standards, as ASTM, AASHTO, European Standards. This book presents the state of the art of pavements and I really recommend its use to the graduate and post-graduate course."
—Rita Moura Fortes, UFAM – Universidade Federal do Amazonas (Amazonas Federal University), Brazil

"The book provides a golden thread linking the complete highway engineering story from material origin and properties ultimately to pavement management and recycling and everything in between – a total picture for the dedicated student."
—Professor Wynand J vd M Steyn, University of Pretoria, South Africa

"This new book is a useful addition to the library of books in english about highway engineering, the extensive coverage of which is all highly relevant and should make it a favourite with most highway engineers and engineering students. …Having adjacent sections on the European, American and/or Australian standards and techniques for various aspects makes it very useful to students looking at different approaches, to practising engineers working in different countries, and to researchers looking to extend the knowledge from existing practice.
—Dr J C (Cliff) Nicholls, TRL Limited, UK

"The most impressive section of the book to my mind, which is not covered in nearly as much depth in other texts, is the treatment of bituminous materials… in particular their characteristics, appropriate methods to characterize their performance in the laboratory, and means of building and maintaining a road using these materials. In addition the book provides a comprehensive coverage of the constituent layers of a road pavement, the material properties of these layers and associated laboratory tests required to characterize these. The different types of methods appropriate to structural design are covered nicely, as are methods of recycling and maintenance."
—Michael Burrow, Senior Lecturer, University of Birmingham, UK