1st Edition

Hot Deformation and Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    616 Pages 403 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    616 Pages 403 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    A comprehensive treatise on the hot working of aluminum and its alloys, Hot Deformation and Processing of Aluminum Alloys details the possible microstructural developments that can occur with hot deformation of various alloys, as well as the kind of mechanical properties that can be anticipated. The authors take great care to explain and differentiate hot working in the context of other elevated temperature phenomena, such as creep, superplasticity, cold working, and annealing. They also pay particular attention to the fundamental mechanisms of aluminum plasticity at hot working temperatures.

    Using extensive analysis derived from polarized light optical microscopy (POM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) scanning electron-microscopy with electron backscatter imaging (SEM-EBSD), and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), the authors examine those microstructures that evolve in torsion, compression, extrusion, and rolling. Further microstructural analysis leads to detailed explanations of dynamic recovery (DRV), static recovery (SRV), discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (dDRX), discontinuous static recrystallization (dSRX), grain defining dynamic recovery (gDRV) (formerly geometric dynamic recrystallization, or gDRX), and continuous dynamic recrystallization involving both a single phase (cDRX/1-phase) and multiple phases (cDRX/2-phase).

    A companion to other works that focus on modeling, manufacturing involving plastic and superplastic deformation, and control of texture and phase transformations, this book provides thorough explanations of microstructural development to lay the foundation for further study of the mechanisms of thermomechanical processes and their application.

    Aluminum and Its Alloys

    Introduction, History, and Applications

    Crystal Structure and Slip Behavior

    Starting Point for Analyzing Plastic Forming

    Alloy Development

    Alloy and Temper Designations

    Solidification, Segregation, and Constitutive Particles

    Aluminum Industry Organization

    Metal Forming and Deformation Modes

    Introduction to Metal Forming

    Industrial Processing Overview

    Computational Modeling and Simulation

    Mechanical: Elastic/Plastic Stress/Strain

    Mechanical: Constitutive Equations

    Microstructural Development

    Hot Work Testing Techniques

    Introduction to Testing




    Hot Rolling


    Hot Working of Aluminum

    DRV, Historical Perspective

    Steady-State Flow Curves

    Constitutive Analysis

    Microstructure Evolution

    Crystal Rotations, Texture, and Strain-Induced Boundaries

    GB Serrations; Geometric DRX: Grain Refining DRV

    DRX of Al Alloys

    GB Sliding and Migration

    Hot Ductility and Failure Mechanisms

    Hot Working of Dispersoid and Solute Alloys

    General Dispersoid Effects

    Al–Mn Alloys, Can Stock (3000 Series)

    Al–Fe and Al–Fe–Co Conductor Alloys

    Al–Si Eutectic Forging Alloys (4000 Series)

    Mechanical Alloying

    Rapidly Solidified Alloys

    Al–Mg Alloys (5000 Series)

    Al–Mg–Mn Alloys (5000 Series)

    Hot Ductility of Al–Mg and Al–Mg–Mn Alloys

    Precipitation Hardening Alloys

    Introduction: Precipitation Behavior

    Al–Mg–Si Alloys (6000 Series)

    Al–Cu–Mg Alloys (2000 Series)

    Al–Zn–Mg–Cu Alloys (7000 Series)

    Al–Li–XX Alloys (8000 Series, 2090)

    Aluminum Matrix Composites


    Varieties and Fabrication

    Hot Deformation

    Forging Experiments

    Comparative Extrusion Behavior

    Comparison of Hot Working of other Metals

    Face-Centered Cubic Metals (Low SFE)

    Body-Centered Cubic Metals

    HCP Metals

    Workability of Dual Phase Alloys of Ti, Zr, and Fe

    Summary: Hot Workability of Different Crystal Structures

    Creep: Strain Rates below 10−4 s−1

    Introduction: Objectives and Description

    Five-Power-Law Creep

    Diffusional Creep

    Harper–Dorn Creep

    Three-Power Law Viscous Glide Creep

    Creep Behavior of Particle-Strengthened Alloys

    Creep Fracture: Grain Boundary Sliding

    Cold Working


    Fundamentals of Single-Crystal Plasticity

    Deformation of Polycrystals

    Development of Dislocation Substructure: Textures

    Influence of Solute and SFE

    Very High Strains: Cyclic Extrusion-Compression

    Very High Strains by Equal-Channel-Angular Pressing

    Comparison of Hot and Cold Working

    Models for Cold and Hot Working

    Static Restoration, Annealing


    SRV after Cold Working

    SRX after Cold Working

    SRV after Hot Working

    SRX after Hot Working

    SRV and SRX during Hot Forming Schedules

    Thermomechanical Processing

    Introduction to Objectives

    Strengthening Mechanisms

    Hot Working with Retained Substructure

    Hot Working with Static Recrystallization

    Cold Working and Annealing

    Product Textures

    Deformation, Precipitation, and Particles

    Powder Consolidation: Multiphase Materials


    Introduction to the Phenomenon

    Fundamentals of Superplasticity

    Classification of Processes for Refining Microstructure

    Heavy Cold or Warm Working and SRX

    Warm Working with cDRX in Superplastic Straining

    Severe Plastic Deformation at Room Temperature


    Introduction to the Process

    Control Parameters

    Insights from FEM

    Substructures and Microstructures in Extrusions

    Extrusion Microstructures in Al–Mg and Al–Mg–Mn (5000 Series)

    Extrusion of Al–Mg–Si Alloys (6000 Series)

    Extrudability of Al–Zn–Mg Alloys (7000 Series, Cu Free)

    Extrudability of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu Alloys (7000 Series)

    Extrudability of Al–Cu–Mg Alloys (2000 Series)

    Surface Failure in Extrusion

    Extrudate Properties and Recrystallization


    Introduction: The Rolling Process

    Static Recovery and Recrystallization

    Hot and Warm Rolling

    Rolling, DRV, SRV, and SRX: Textures

    Rod Rolling; Particle-Stabilized Wire

    Torsional Simulation of Rolling

    Rolling Simulation in Compression

    Modeling of Rolling

    Hot and Cold Forging



    Forging Rate: Press Effects

    Shape and Fiber Control: Die Type

    Modeling: Shape and Structure

    Microstructure Development


    Comparison to Semisolid Forming


    Hugh J. McQueen is professor emeritus of materials and manufacturing in mechanical engineering at Concordia University and has served one term as the department chair. Since 1965, he has been conducting hot working research in industrial alloys of Al, Cu, Ni and Fe with special emphases on Al alloys and composites and on stainless steels. He has broadened his experience with sabbatical leaves at Comalco and BHP Research Centers (Melbourne), Norwegian Institute for Technology (Trondheim), Universities of Ancona, Erlangen-Nürnberg and Hamburg-Harburg. Professor McQueen also has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in mechanical properties and forming technology and has produced a short film on Dislocations. Before coming to Concordia in 1968, he had conducted research at CANMET and been associate professor at Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal. In 1961, he obtained his Ph.D. in Metallurgy from Notre Dame University (Indiana), following a B.Eng from McGill University in 1956 and a B.Sc from Loyola of Montreal in 1954. He is a fellow of Canadian Institute of Metallurgy, the Institute of Metals, Materials and Minerals the American Society for Metals and of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering. In 2000, he received the Alcan Award in recognition of research and education contributions. From 1986 to 1998, Dr. McQueen served the Metallurgical Society CIM as a member of the Board and as chairs of the Microstructural Science Section and of the Metal Fabrication Section. He organized the International Conference on Strength of Metals and Alloys in Montreal in 1985 and served on its advisory council.

    Prof. Stefano Spigarelli has been a professor of metallurgy on the engineering faculty at Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy, since April 2005. His research activity is mainly focused on the high-temperature mechanical properties of light metals and steels. His current interests include creep and hot working of steels and aluminium and magnesium alloys, as well as the characterization of nanostructured coatings and the study of non-conventional welding processes and cryogenics treatments. His worldwide scientific collaborations have led to numerous joint publications co-authored by scientists from Japan, Korea, Norway, Israel, Russia, United States and Czech Republic. He has author or co-authored more than 150 published articles and serves as reviewer for several International Journals. Professor Spigarelli is member of Italian Association of Metallurgy (AIM).

    Prof. Michael Kassner is director of research at the Office of Naval Research.  He assumed the position in October 2009, while on leave from the University of Southern California, where he is was made chairman of the mechanical and aerospace engineering department in 2003, as well as a professor of mechanical engineering and materials science. He graduated with a B.S. in Science-Engineering from Northwestern University in 1972, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from Stanford University in 1979 and 1981, respectively. Kassner worked at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory from 1981 to 1990. During that period, he was head of the physical metallurgy and welding section and performed basic research on the mechanical behavior of metals. In 1984, he spent a year on leave as a Fulbright Senior Scholar at the University of Groningen in The Netherlands. In 1990, Kassner accepted a faculty position in the mechanical engineering department at Oregon State University, where he was Northwest Aluminum Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and director of the interdisciplinary Ph.D. program in materials science. Prof. Kassner is currently active in pursuing research at USC on creep, fracture, fatigue and thermodynamics and has published two books—one on the fundamentals of creep plasticity in metals and another on phase diagrams. He has also authored or co-authored more than 200 published articles. He serves on several editorial and review boards for major scientific journals and is a Fellow of American Society of Metals (ASM), a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and a Fellow of the American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

    Enrico Evangelista is an Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy in Mechanical Engineering at Polytechnical University of Ancona, Italy. He started research on high-temperature internal friction behavior of pure and low-alloyed aluminum at University of Bologna. During a sabbatical, (1980) at Concordia University (Montreal), as visiting research associate, he was introduced to hot deformation of industrial alloys. During subsequent years, he was served as visiting professor at Universities of Trondheim (Norway), Oregon State (USA), Chiba (Japan), and Pohang, (Korea). In the hot working field, he provided practical advice to Italian industry. At University of Ancona, where he became professor of metallurgy in 1983, he created a research group devoted to deformation behavior of metals investigated by means of hot torsion and creep tests. He studied numerous experimental and industrial aluminum alloys and composites, magnesium and titanium alloys, as well as low alloy, stainless and duplex steels. The mechanical behavior was clarified through microstructural investigation by TEM. Professor Evangelista has coauthored more than 250 published papers and is a fellow of ASM. He is also a member of the European Academy of Sciences (EAS) and THERMEC 2011 Distinguished Award recipient.