This text presents a four-step approach for applying communicative concepts to driving automation, including: scoping, piloting, designing, and testing. It further provides experimental data on how practical human-human communication strategies can be applied to interaction in automated vehicles.
The book explores the role of communication and the nature of situation awareness in automated vehicles to ensure safe and usable automated vehicle operation. It covers the issue of interaction in automated vehicles by providing insight into communicative concepts, the transfer of control in human-teams, and how these concepts can be applied in automated vehicles. The theoretical framework is built on by presenting experimental findings, design workshop output and providing a demonstration of prototype generation for automated assistants that addresses a wide range of performance outcomes within human-machine interaction.
Aimed at professionals, graduate students, and academic researchers in the fields of ergonomics, automotive engineering, transportation engineering, and human factors, this text:
- Discusses experimental findings on how practical human-human communication strategies can be applied to interaction in automated vehicles.
- Provides a four-step approach for applying communicative concepts to driving automation, including: scoping, piloting, designing and testing.
- Explores the role of distributed situation awareness in automated vehicles.
- Covers communication and system awareness in response to multiple complex road scenarios.
- Provides design guidelines for automation-human handover design.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction. 2. Vehicle Automation as a Co-pilot: Setting the Scene for Effective Human-Automation Collaboration. 3. Cognitive Work Analysis to Improve Communication in AV Interactions. 4. Review of Handover Tools and Techniques in High-Risk Shift-Work Domains. 5. Replicating Human-Human Communication in a Vehicle: A Simulation Study. 6. Directability and Eye-Gaze: Exploring Interactions between Vocal Cues and the use of Visual Displays. 7. Participatory Workshops for Designing Interactions in Automated Vehicles. 8. Designing Automated Vehicle Interactions using Design with Intent. 9. Validation and Testing of Final Interaction Design Concepts for Automated Vehicles. 10. Conclusions. 11. Appendix A: Cue cards for vocal procedure - chapter 5. 12. Appendix B: HUD slides for final design solution. 13. List of References.
Dr Jediah Clark, PhD, is a Research Fellow in Human-Automation Interaction. He has a PhD in Human Factors and an MSc in Research Methods from the University of Southampton and a BSc in Psychology from Cardiff Metropolitan University. His research interests include interface and interaction design, and communication protocol design for the purposes of raising system situation awareness and improving the calibration of trust. Dr Clark was awarded the Southampton University Doctoral College Enterprise Award in 2019 and 2020 for his contributions to the design of automated vehicle interfaces in industry. He has worked on automated vehicle HMI design for five years and has also worked in the domains of defense and autonomous drone operation. Dr Clark believes that autonomous systems should be tailored and carefully designed to the user-population to ensure that these complex systems work with humanity, rather than against it.
Professor Neville Stanton, PhD, DSc, is a Chartered Psychologist, Chartered Ergonomist and Chartered Engineer. He has recently retired from the Chair in Human Factors Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton in the UK. He has degrees in Occupational Psychology, Applied Psychology and Human Factors Engineering and has worked at the Universities of Aston, Brunel, Cornell and MIT. His research interests include modelling, predicting, analyzing, and evaluating human performance in systems as well as designing the interfaces and interaction between humans and technology. Professor Stanton has worked on design of automobiles, aircraft, ships and control rooms over the past 30 years, on a variety of automation projects. He has published 50 books and over 400 peer-reviewed journal papers on Ergonomics and Human Factors. In 1998 he was presented with the Institution of Electrical Engineers Divisional Premium Award for research into System Safety. The Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors in the UK awarded him The Otto Edholm Medal in 2001, The President’s Medal in 2008 and 2018, The Sir Frederic Bartlett Medal in 2012 and The William Floyd Medal in 2019 for his contributions to basic and applied ergonomics research. The Royal Aeronautical Society awarded him and his colleagues the Hodgson Prize in 2006 for research on design-induced, flight-deck, error published in The Aeronautical Journal. The University of Southampton has awarded him a Doctor of Science in 2014 for his sustained contribution to the development and validation of Human Factors methods.
Dr Kirsten M. A. Revell has, for a number of years, led the autonomous vehicle domain within the Human Factors Engineering team as a research fellow in the Transportation Research Group (TRG) in the Faculty of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton. She has degrees in both Psychology and Industrial Design from Exeter and Brunel University London respectively, as well as a PhD in Human Factors for the design of behavior change, from the University of Southampton. She has previously worked in Microsoft Ltd. and has also conducted research in military, domestic energy, rail, and aviation domains, collaborating extensively with government bodies and industry. She is a member of the Human Factors Sustainable Development Technical Committee and has been jointly awarded the Annual Aviation Safety Prize by the Honourable Company of Air Pilots and the Air Pilots Trust. Dr Revell passionately believes that Human Factors can offer solutions to the critical global issues we face today. Her current focus is on using Human Factors to show how systems shape lives, highlighting where change, is needed to promote an inclusive and sustainable world, with a particular interest in gender equity.