1st Edition

Human Resource Management in Shipping Issues, Challenges, and Solutions

By Lijun Tang, Pengfei Zhang Copyright 2021
    200 Pages 12 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    200 Pages 12 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book sheds light on the nature and causes of the issues and challenges in human resources in shipping and proposes fresh recommendations to manage them. It explains the multiple forces at play, including the global regulatory regime, national institutional frameworks, industrial practices, trade union responses, and pressures from customers and non-governmental organisations.

    Human Resource Management in Shipping integrates seafarer employment data released by national maritime authorities and a large body of literature that discusses discrete human resources issues in shipping into a single volume, providing readers with a comprehensive understanding of the issues and challenges within human resources in shipping. Beyond this, the book also offers a fresh perspective on some of the long lasting HRM challenges in the industry, such as skills shortage and seafarer recruitment and retention.

    This book aims to provide readers with systematic and in-depth knowledge of human resource management in shipping, and offers researchers a valuable source of reference and a solid foundation on which further development can be built.

    Chapter 1: Introduction; HRM in maritime shipping – a framework; The human element; Drivers for good HR practices; Structure of the book; Chapter 2: The structural transformation of the shipping industry; Flagging out and the globalisation of shipping; The shipping regulatory regime; The trend of international regulations; ITF; Chapter 3: The global labour market and national employment regimes; The global seafarer labour market; The case of Filipino seafarers; The case of Chinese seafarers; The case of Indian; The case of UK seafarers; The global competition; Chapter 4: Cadet Recruitment and Training; The STCW Convention; The case of the Philippines; The case of China; The case of India; The case of the UK; Revisiting the seafarer shortage; Chapter 5: Training and Professional Development; Who pays for training and identify training needs; New technology and training; Cybersecurity; Shipboard training and mentoring; Professional development as an HR strategy; Chapter 6: Working at Sea and the Challenges; Hierarchical organisational structure; Multinational crews; Tour of duty length and communication; Work intensification and fatigue; Accommodation and leisure facilities; Shore leave; Piracy; Criminalisation; Interaction with port personnel; Health and mental health; The implications of working and living conditions; Chapter 7: Retention and Remuneration; Challenges of retaining seafarers; Reasons for working at sea; Regulations on employment benefits and conditions; Employment practices; Job satisfaction and organisational commitment; Competence; Chapter 8: Performance Management; The Shipping KPI System; TMSA and tanker ship vetting; CSR and Sustainability; Appraisals; Chapter 9: Hierarchy, Power and Safety Management; Maritime safety and safety management; ISM implementation; Leadership & teamwork; Chapter 10: Conclusion; The pursuit of cost-effectiveness and HR challenges; The quest for safety and recommendations


    Lijun Tang is Lecturer in International Shipping and Port Management at the University of Plymouth. He was involved in a number of maritime research projects and has rich experience in maritime HRM related research. His research interests and publications are in the areas of employment relations, seafarer training, maritime health and safety, CSR and sustainability, and the seafarer labour market.

    Pengfei Zhang is a senior lecturer at Solent University, teaching maritime business, ship and port management, international trade and commercial law; his main research areas include: seafarers; ship management; maritime safety and security.