3rd Edition

Human Thermal Environments The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance, Third Edition

By Ken Parsons Copyright 2002
    636 Pages 149 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    In the ten years since the publication of the second edition of Human Thermal Environments: The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance, Third Edition, the world has embraced electronic communications, making international collaboration almost instantaneous and global. However, there is still a need for a compilation of up-to-date information and best practices. Reflecting current changes in theory and applications, this third edition of a bestseller continues to be the standard text for the design of environments for humans to live and work safely, comfortably, and effectively, and for the design of materials that help people cope with their environments.

    See What’s New in the Third Edition:

    • All existing chapters significantly updated
    • Five new chapters
    • Testing and development of clothing
    • Adaptive models
    • Thermal comfort for special populations
    • Thermal comfort for special environments
    • Extreme environments
    • Weather
    • Outdoor environments and climate change
    • Fun runs, cold snaps, and heat waves

    The book covers hot, moderate, and cold environments, and defines them in terms of six basic parameters: air temperature, radiant temperature, humidity, air velocity, clothing worn, and the person’s activity. It focuses on the principles and practice of human response, which incorporates psychology, physiology, and environmental physics with applied ergonomics. The text then discusses water requirements, computer modeling, computer-aided design, and current standards. A systematic treatment of thermal environments and how they affect humans in real-world applications, the book links the health and engineering aspects of the built environment. It provides you with updated tools, techniques, and methods for the design of products and environments that achieve thermal comfort.

    Human Thermal Environments
    Basic Parameters
    Heat Transfer for a Cylinder
    Role of Heat Transfer Theory in the Assessment of Human Thermal Environments

    The Human Heat Balance Equation and the Thermal Audit
    The Heat Balance Equation for the Human Body
    The Thermal Audit
    Expert Estimation of the Thermal Audit
    Assessment of Environments Using the Thermal Audit

    Human Thermal Physiology and Thermoregulation
    Thermal Properties of the Human Body
    Human Thermoregulation
    Physiological Responses
    Behavioural Thermoregulation
    Body Temperature
    Comfort as the Regulated Variable

    Psychological Responses and Human Behaviour

    Psychological Models
    Thermal Sensation
    Semantics, Psychological Models and Multidimensional Scaling
    Mood, Aggression, Depression and Other Psychological Reactions

    Measurement Methods and Assessment Techniques

    Measuring Kits and Composite Instruments
    Measurement of Physiological Response
    Measurement of Psychological Responses
    Thermal Index: An Assessment Technique

    Dehydration and Water Requirements
    Body Water
    Dehydration Measures
    Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
    Dehydration Limits
    Practical Recommendations for Drinking
    Drinking Too Much

    Thermal Models

    Thermal Models
    Empirical Models
    Rational Thermal Models
    Do Models Work?
    Hybrid Models
    Computer-Aided Design

    Metabolic Heat Production

    Where Does the Heat Come from?
    Estimation of Metabolic Heat Production
    Collection and Analysis of Expired Air
    The Doubly Labelled Water (DLW) Method
    The Use of Tables and Databases
    Empirical Models
    Subjective Methods
    Special Populations: Children, People with Physical Disabilities and People Wearing Protective Clothing and Equipment

    The Thermal Properties of Clothing

    The Two-Parameter Model
    More Complex Clothing Models and the Three-Parameter Model

    Testing and Developing Clothing
    Determination of the Thermal Properties of Clothing
    Performance Tests
    Performance Trials
    Clothing Specification and the Window of Application

    Thermal Comfort
    Whole-Body Thermal Comfort
    Thermal Models and Thermal Comfort

    Thermal Comfort for Special Environments
    Thermal Comfort in Special Environments
    Personal Control Environments
    Displacement Ventilation and Chilled Ceiling Environments
    Thermal Comfort in Vehicles
    Outdoor Thermal Comfort
    Other Special Environments

    Thermal Comfort for Special Populations

    Do Requirements for Comfort Apply Universally?
    Effects of Acclimatisation State on Thermal Comfort Requirements
    Other Factors
    People with Disabilities
    Babies, Children, the Sick and the Pregnant

    Heat Stress

    Physiological Responses to Heat
    Heat Stress Indices
    Direct Heat Stress Indices
    Working Practices for Hot Environments

    Cold Stress

    Physiological Responses to Cold
    Psychological Response to Cold
    Cold Injury and Illness
    Cold Stress Indices
    Working Practices for Cold Environments
    Case Study of Cold Work in a Hospital ‘Plating Area’

    Thermal Environments and Human Performance
    Early Studies: Factory Output and Accidents
    Performance in Moderate Environments
    Performance in Cold
    Performance Models and Indices
    Summary Models
    Environmental Design for Productivity

    Human Skin Contact with Hot, Moderate and Cold Surfaces

    Skin Contact with a Hot Surface: Analysis of the Event
    Mathematical Models of Heat Transfer
    Surfaces of Moderate Temperature
    Cold Surfaces

    International Standards

    ISO Standards
    Standards in the United States
    Standards in China
    Standards in the United Kingdom
    European Standards (CEN)
    Example of the Application of International ISO Standards to the Assessment of a Hot Environment
    Example of the Application of International (ISO) Standards for the Assessment of Moderate Environments
    Example of the Application of International (ISO) Standards for the Assessment of Cold Environments

    Weather, Climate Change and Energy Use
    Meteorological Observations
    Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)
    Future Development and Application of the UTCI
    Climate Change
    Human Thermal Environments and Energy Use

    People in Extreme Heat and Cold, Hypobaric and Hyperbaric Environments, Water, Space and Extreme Sport

    People in Extreme Heat
    People in Extreme Cold
    People Under Pressure
    People in Hyperbaric Environments
    People in Water
    Frozen Terrain, Snow, Rain, Wind and Floods
    People in Space
    Extreme Sport

    Appendix 1

    Appendix 2
    Appendix 3


    Ken Parsons

    "… a solid review of a very important topic … a key source of information for research students and others new to the field …"
    —Tord Kjellstrom, Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health, Retired, Umea University, Sweden, Australian National University and University College London

    "… the most comprehensive book available on the effects of human thermal environment on human responses and the methods for analyzing the environment, human, and clothing. … readable because of its logical structure and serviceable size."
    —Hannu Rintamäki, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

    "… a tour de force … Professor Parsons carefully walks the reader through the fundamental principles, followed by the integration into models, to assessment strategies, and wraps it up with higher level discussion of complex exposures and emerging concerns. His commentary along the way is very informative."
    —Thomas E. Bernard