1st Edition

Hybrid Vehicles
and the Future of Personal Transportation





ISBN 9781420075342
Published September 19, 2008 by CRC Press
504 Pages 180 B/W Illustrations

USD $115.00

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Book Description

Uncover the Technology behind Hybrids and Make an Intelligent Decision When Purchasing Your Next Vehicle
With one billion cars expected to be on the roads of the world in the near future, the potential for war over oil and the negative environmental effects of emissions will be greater than ever before. Now is the time to seriously consider an alternative to standard automobiles.

Exploring practical solutions to these problems, Hybrid Vehicles and the Future of Personal Transportation provides broad coverage of the technologies involved in manufacturing and operating hybrids. It reviews key components of hybrid and pure electric vehicles, including batteries, fuel cells, and ultracapacitors. The book also discusses both concept and production-bound hybrids as well as the economics and safety issues of hybrid ownership. In addition, the author supplies effective tips on how to save gasoline with conventional and hybrid automobiles.

Making the jargon of fuel-efficient vehicles accessible to a wide audience, this guide explains the history of hybrids, how they work, and their impact on the environment. It will help you make a sound decision concerning the purchase and operation of a hybrid or electric vehicle.

Table of Contents

Historical Roots of Hybrid Automobiles
Ancient History: Crossroads
Steam Cars
Electric Cars
Gasoline Cars
Carriages
Crossroads
Invention of Hybrid Automobile
Key Features of Hybrid Automobile
Early Hybrid Vehicles
Woods Gas-Electric Car
Control Systems for Early Hybrids
Modern Period of Hybrid History
Hybrid Automobiles: Stirring of Interest in the 1990s
Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles
Crossroads 2008: Sneak Preview of the Future
References
Additional References
Why the Crisis? Hybrid Vehicles as a Mitigation Measure
Introduction
A Story
Setting the Stage
Depletion of Petroleum
Estimating Oil Production
Oil Reserves and Resources
Demand for Petroleum
Oil in the United States
Hubbert’s Peaking Theory
Near-Term Situation
Summary
References
Overview of Hybrid Vehicles
Introduction
Concept Hybrids and Electric Vehicles
Concept Hybrids on Two (or Three) Wheels
Park the Car
Description of a Few Select Hybrids
Hybrid Truck and Bus Technology
Concept and Production Hybrid Trucks
Hydrogen Electric Racing Federation
Production Hybrid Buses
Military Applications of Hybrids
Parting Perspective
Summary
Appendix
References
Hybrid Automobile: What Is It?
Hybrid Definition
A New Idea for a Hybrid
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Inherently More Expensive
Hybrids: Mainstream or on the Fringe? Success or Failure?
HEV Propulsion Design Options
HEV Propulsion Design Options: Series
Discussion of Various Operating Modes: Series
HEV Propulsion Design Options: Parallel
Discussion of Various Operating Modes: Parallel
Comment on Toyota Prius
Choice of Series, Parallel, or Mixed
Technologies for a Successful Hybrid
Operation with a “Dead” Battery
Summary
Why Hybrids Get Good Mileage
Introduction
Hybrid Specific
Summary
References
Multifaceted Complexity of Batteries
Introduction
Electrical Definitions for Hybrid Vehicles
Battery Electrochemistry
Battery Life
Battery Charging and Discharging
Battery Data
Safety
Cost
Calendar Life
Electrochemistry
Lithium-Ion Alkaline Battery
Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery
Advanced Technology
Application of Lithium-Ion Battery in Hybrids
Application of Batteries in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
Battery Selection
Battery Properties
Hybrids Using Electrochemical Storage
Maps Based on Battery Energy and Power
Fuel Cells
Capacitors
Summary
Appendix 1: Electrochemistry of a Voltaic Cell and Fuel Cell
Appendix 2: Capacitors
References
Obesity: Bad in Humans, Bad in Cars
Introduction
Vehicle Weight and Fuel Economy
Vehicle Weight and Vehicle Safety
Summary
Appendix 1: Mathematics of Fractional Change
Appendix 2: Derivation of Equation 7.12
References
Vital Role of the Control System
History of Automobile Control
Example of Engine Controls from 1980s
Function of Control System
Analogy with Symphony Orchestra Conductor
Fringe Benefits of Control System
Simulation and Modeling
Design Sequence
Algorithm Development
Conflict: Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions
Exhaust Emissions: Origin of Pollutants
Various Operational Modes to Be Controlled
Elements of Control Theory
Overview of Control System: Cartoon Version
Overview of Control System: Electronic Control Unit Version
Descriptions of Electronic Control Units
Control Area Network
Control Variables: Variables Connecting the ECUs
Engine Management
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Engine Efficiency Map
Load Leveling
Control Complexity and Difficulty.
Adaptive Control Strategy
Robustness of Control System
Four Control Strategies
Rules-Based Control Algorithm
Optimization
Hardware-Constrained Optimization
Fuzzy Logic Control: What Is It?
Fuzzy Logic Control Application to Hybrid Control
Neural Network Control: What Is It?
Neural Network Control: Application to Hybrid Control
Comparison of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks for Control
Combined Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks for Control
Electrical Components: Electrical Motors and Generators
Summary
References
Regenerative Braking
Introduction
Brakes and Tires Primer
Longitudinal Tire Forces: Braking
Driver Input
Brake Actuator
Three-Port Switch
Controller: Inputs
Controller: Outputs
M/G: Generator Mode
Summary
Appendix: Equations for Regenerative and Friction Brakes
Regenerative Brakes
Friction Brakes
References
Narrow Operating Band for Gasoline Engine
Introduction
Driving Cycle
Minimum Fuel Consumption Line
Summary
References
Hybridness: A Basic Design Decision
Definition of Hybridness
A Story
Hybrid Design Philosophy
Hybridness: Parallel Hybrid
Hybridness: Series, Mixed, and Range Extender (Plug-In) Hybrids
Range Extender
Optimization and Hybridness
Battery Power and Electric Motor Power
Residual Performance with a “Dead” Battery
Effect of Low Charge
Power-to-Weight Ratio
Interpretation of Ramps
Various Techniques to Enhance Hybrid Performance
Mild or Micro Hybrid Features
Why Is H about 50% a Good Spot for Big Miles per Gallon?
Plug-In Hybrid
All-Wheel Drive Hybrid
Summary
Appendix 1: Derivation of Range Extension Equations
Appendix 2: Range of a Plug-In Hybrid.
References
Mileage Ratings
Introduction
Mileage Ratings
Previous EPA Mileage Estimates
Deficiencies in Old and New EPA Methods
New EPA Tests to Estimate Mileage
Testing Hybrids
Corporate Average Fuel Economy
How to Improve Fuel Economy: Tips for Better Miles/Gallon
Preliminaries
Buying Gasoline
Test Accuracy
Plan Ahead
Vehicle Maintenance
Getting Better mpg Cruising along the Interstate
Aggressive Driving
Driving Tips
Air-Conditioning and Windows Down
Open Windows
Where You Drive
Mileage Scams
Summary
Appendix 1: Optimum Cruise Speed.
Appendix 2: CAFE Fleet Average Fuel Economy and Vehicle Average
Appendix 3: Change in Fuel Economy EPA Estimates: Old versus New Test Methods
References
Enhancing the Sales Brochure
Introduction
Hybrid Components
Hybrid System
Hybrid Performance
Miscellaneous
Summary
References
Torque Curves: A Match Made in Heaven
History of Electrical Alternators, Motors, and Generators in Automobiles
Functions of the Motor/Generator
Origin of Forces and Torques
Types of Motors and/or Generators
Permanent Magnets
Definitions for Motors and Generators
Simple DC Motor/Generator
Rotating Magnetic Field
DC Brushless Motor
Alternator
Induction Motor and Asynchronous Generator
Switched Reluctance Motor: Stepping Motor
Losses and Motor Efficiency
Cooling
Selection of M/G
Design and Control Aspects
Desired and Attainable Torque Curve: Match Made in Heaven
Switching from Motor to Generator and Vice Versa
Alternate View of Electric Motors: Torque or Speed
Summary
Appendix: Matching Poles for a Switched Reluctance Motor
References
Economics of Hybrid Ownership
Introduction
Benefits of Hybrids
Pay at the Pump
Fuel Costs
Fuel Savings
Years to Recoup
Tax Savings
Costs
Interplay Hybrid Technology and Price Premium
Summary
Appendix: Classified Advertisement for Toyota Prius II
References
New Technologies: Hybrids
Overview
Factors Affecting New Technology
Biggest Gains
Mining the Obvious: Energy Storage
Mining the Obvious: Other Hybrid Technologies
Innovation: Seeking the Novel
Motivation for New Technology
Summary
Appendix: Saving Gasoline
References
New Technologies: Internal Combustion Engine
Introduction
What and Where Are the Losses?
Technology to Increase Efficiency
Examples of New Designs
Convergence of Gas and Diesel
Summary
Appendix: Combustion Processes in ICE
References
Hybrids: Mainstream or Fringe?
Introduction
Determining Factors
Competition: HEV versus Gas/Diesel
Future for HEV
Competition: HEV versus FCV
Fuel Cell Vehicle Future
Summary
References
Factors Influencing Resale Value
Introduction
Common Factors
Resale Factors Specific to Hybrids
Summary
Dangers of Aftermarket Add-Ons
Service and Repair
Performance Modification
Summary
Safety Issues
Overview
What Are Today’s Hazards?
Who Has an Interest in Hybrid Safety?
What Are Future Hazards?
Summary
Appendix: Lithium-Ion Battery Safety
Li-Ion Battery Protection in HEV Application
Cell-Level Safety Devices
Opening (Rupture) Lithium-Ion Battery
Causes of Battery Accidents: Triggers
Triggers: Overcharging or Overheating: Steps to Possible Disaster with Conventional Cell Chemistries
Triggers: Internal Short Circuit: Partial or Total
Positive Electrode
Negative Electrode
References
The Future
Introduction
Supply and Demand
Mitigation Measures
Abiotic Oil
Alternate Fuels: Overview
Alternate Fuels: Details
Alternate Fuels: Ethanol as a Fuel
Alternate Fuels: More Fuels
Alternate Fuels: Hydrogen as a Fuel
The Past—The Future
Summary
Appendix: Physical Properties of Fuels
References
Appendix A: Acronyms and Mostly Relevant Data Vocabulary and Definitions
Appendix B: Global Warming
Index

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Reviews

"The book provides excellent information for a consumer to learn about almost every aspect of HEVs, including principles, safety, and maintenance . . . Summing Up: Recommended."

– C. Mi, University of Michigan Dearborn, in Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, September 2009, Vol. 47, No. 1