1st Edition

Hydrocarbon Processing and Refining Principles and Practices

By Ashis Nag Copyright 2023
    374 Pages 206 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book covers petroleum refining and gas purification processes, including refinery configurations comprising of relevant units with special emphasis on processing of heavy crudes with high acid number. It includes a short review of distillation principles, distillation column auxiliaries, critical column pressure control strategies, critical issues of crude and vacuum distillation units particularly for heavy crude processing. Different corrosion mechanisms and their prevention with regards to heavy high TAN crude processing are also included. Fundamentals are explained with support of steady-state simulation and presented with simulation flowsheets and outputs, supported by examples of calculations and troubleshooting case studies.


    • Deals with principles and practices in the hydrocarbon industry and petroleum refinery with emphasis on heavy crude processing

    • Focuses on operation and practices of the major process units with simulation examples and aimed at the professional engineer

    • Covers acid gas treatment in view of increased emphasis on carbon capture and storage, and introduction of residue gasification processes

    • Elucidates methodologies for safety relief load computation for distillation columns

    • Explains real-life problems in reboilers, column internals, column pressure controls and corrosion in crude, and vacuum distillation and secondary units with several case studies

    This book is aimed at professionals in petroleum engineering and graduate students in chemical engineering.

    1.0   Overview of refining and distillation
    1.1 Overview of refinery
    1.2 Distillation – an overview
    1.3 Column pressure control strategies and reboilers
    1.4 Processing of heavy crudes
    1.5 Corrosion in crude- vacuum distillation units with heavy crudes
    1.6 Processing of high TAN crudes
    1.7 Processing of crude oils with high calcium
    1.8 Case studies in distillation units

    2.0 Fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU)
    2.1 Process description
    2.2 Reactor regenerator heat balance
    2.3 Combustion modes of regenerators
    2.4 Definition of Delta coke
    2.5 Power recovery from regenerator flue gas
    2.6 Operating variables
    2.7 Fluidization and related equipment in FCCU
    2.8 Physical properties of catalysts related to fluidization
    2.9 Guidelines for design of cyclones
    2.10 Problems related to cyclones
    2.11 Riser separation system and positive / negative pressure cyclones
    2.12 Estimation of transport disengaging height in regenerators
    2.13 Design guidelines for cyclone dip legs
    2.14 Design and operating guidelines for FCCU catalyst standpipes
    2.15 Reactions in FCCU and catalysts features and additives
    2.16 Corrosion in FCCU its prevention and mitigation

    3.0 Delayed Coking unit (DCU)
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Process description
    3.3 Operating variables
    3.4 Activities in decoking operation
    3.5 Effect of feed stock on coking
    3.6 Coker furnace and factor affecting fast furnace coking and decoking operation
    3.7 Coke drum and drum deformities
    3.8 Coke morphology and effect on operation
    3.9 Safety in Coke storage and handling
    3.10 Case studies

    4.0 Hydrotreaters and Hydrocrackers
    4.1 Introduction of the process and basic functions
    4.2 Catalysts and reasons for deactivation
    4.3 Process variables
    4.4 Operating concerns in Naphtha hydrotreater units 
    4.5 Diesel hydrotreaters and common operating problems
    4.6 Heavy distillate hydrotreaters and common operating problems
    4.7 Overview of residue hydrotreater
    4.8 Hydrocrackers and various configurations
    4.9 Metallurgy of hydrotreaters and hydrocrackers
    4.10 Case studies
    4.11 Improvement of recycle gas purity

    5.0 Acid gas treatment
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Options for acid gas removal
    5.3 Common physical solvents for acid gas removal
    5.4 Physical chemical solvents
    5.5 Chemical solvents and processes
    5.6 Recent trends and advances
    5.7 Different types of membranes and processes
    5.8 Experiences of amine unit performance in Industry
    5.9 Case studies
    5.10 Carbon capture

    6.0 Hydrogen generation units
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Description of steam reformer
    6.3 Common process problems
    6.4 Mechanism for deactivation of catalysts
    6.5 Case studies
    6.6 Hydrogen recovery
    6.7 Capacity augmentation

    7.0 Sulfur recovery unit
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Process description and reaction mechanism
    7.3 Enhanced sulfur recovery
    7.4 Common problems in SRUs
    7.5 Capacity augmentation

    8.0 Plant safety
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Methodologies for relief load computation for columns
    8.3 Relief load calculation of a crude distillation column
    8.4 Relief load calculation of a Vacuum distillation column
    8.5 Summary of contingencies
    8.6 Safety measures in high pressure and low-pressure interconnections
    8.10  Location and special features of installation of safety valve
    8.11 Relation between design pressure and test pressure of equipment

    9.0 Technical challenges in refining
    9.1  Lower crude and product differential
    9.2  Stricter product specifications
    9.3  Stricter emission norms
    9.4  Limited sales of Coke and heavy oils

    10.0  Renewable energy
    10.1  Introduction
    10.2  Types of renewable energy
    10.3  Types of biomass
    10.4  conversion of biomass to energy and byproducts
    10.5  Forms of bio fuels and benefits of biofuels
    10.6  Bio refinery
    10.7  Renewable hydrogen fuel



    Ashis Nag is a professional Chemical Engineer with 40 + years of rich experience in various fields of Petroleum refining and related downstream process technologies. He has worked in different refineries of Indian oil corporation and in Essar oil refinery, Jamnagar. He served as Head of special central process engineering and design cell of Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) as Executive Director. Presently, he is working as a process consultant. Internationally traveled and author of several papers for international journals and forums, he has also authored a book titled Distillation and Hydrocarbon Processing Practices. He has received a couple of awards for innovative designs, and obtained a B.CH.E degree in chemical engineering from Jadavpur university, Kolkata, India, in 1976.