Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world’s leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them.
Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapter explains how a hydrogen-based energy carrier and storage infrastructure is required to address fuel resource and political insecurities as well as global climate change. The second chapter describes high-efficiency hydrogen conversion devices, including internal combustion engines and fuel cells, for producing power and electricity.
The book then dives into the state of the art in hydrogen storage technology. It covers recent hydrogen storage materials research and hydrogen storage methods, with an emphasis on solid-state techniques. It also reviews codes and standards and explores engineering approaches for creating zero-emission, hydrogen-fueled power systems.
Collecting recent results from around the globe, this book gets you up to date on the latest hydrogen-based technology for mitigating energy and environmental risks. It provides a deep science and engineering-based description of hydrogen storage materials and clearly explains how the materials are engineered for zero-emission, carbon-free power systems.
Table of Contents
The Need for Hydrogen in the 21st Century and Devices for Converting It to Power
The Need for Hydrogen-Based Energy Technologies in the 21st Century, Jay Keller, Lennie Klebanoff, Susan Schoenung, and Mary Gillie
Hydrogen Conversion Technologies and Automotive Applications, Lennie Klebanoff, Jay Keller, Matt Fronk, and Paul Scott
Hydrogen Storage Materials and Technologies
Historical Perspectives on Hydrogen, Its Storage, and Its Applications, Bob Bowman, Jr. and Lennie Klebanoff
Hydrogen Storage in Pressure Vessels: Liquid, Cryogenic, and Compressed Gas, Guillaume Petitpas and Salvador Aceves
Hydrogen Storage in Interstitial Metal Hydrides, Ben Chao and Lennie Klebanoff
Development of Onboard Reversible Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage, Vitalie Stavila, Lennie Klebanoff, John Vajo, and Ping Chen
Storage Materials Based on Hydrogen Physisorption, Justin Purewal and Channing Ahn
Development of Off-Board Reversible Hydrogen Storage Materials, Jason Graetz, David Wolstenholme, Guido Pez, Lennie Klebanoff, Sean McGrady, and Alan Cooper
Engineered Hydrogen Storage Systems: Materials, Methods, and Codes and Standards
Engineering Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials, Daniel Dedrick
Solid-State H2 Storage System Engineering: Direct H2 Refueling, Terry Johnson and Pierre Bénard
Engineering Assessments of Condensed-Phase Hydrogen Storage Systems, Bob Bowman, Jr., Don Anton, and Ned Stetson
Codes and Standards for Hydrogen Storage in Vehicles, Christine Sloane
Lennie Klebanoff is a scientist with Sandia National Laboratories, where he has been leading efforts in fuel cell market transformation, including the development of a mobile lighting system used on the red carpet at the Academy Awards and Golden Globes shows. Dr. Klebanoff was previously Director of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Metal Hydride Center of Excellence and Environmental Team Leader for the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography program. He was also a Professor of Chemistry at Lehigh University, where he invented the technique of spin-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. He earned a PhD in physical chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Klebanoff holds 23 patents and is the author of over 95 scientific papers.
"It is an often heard statement that hydrogen is the fuel of the future; some people add, “and will always be.” Why is the first element in the periodic table so important to our future? Its combustion produces energy with no release of CO2, since it does not contain carbon. Its use in fuel cells does not emit NOx. It can be produced from water, which is available widely and more abundantly than fossil fuels. How do we make its generation, storage, and distribution affordable? These precisely are the issues discussed comprehensively in the 12 chapters of this book...Many of the contributors in this multi-author volume participated in three hydrogen storage centers of excellence set up by the US Department of Energy, which accounts for the uniformity of style and quality in this book. Contributions come from four countries: the United States, Canada, China, and the United Kingdom, reflecting international concerns.
The book as a whole will be a good reference in a graduate level course on energy systems and will also be useful to scientists and engineers in fundamental and industrial research. Policymakers will especially be interested in Section I.
The publication of this book is timely. Materials tend to be closer to commercialization when they have more than one application. Metal hydrides, for example, originally developed for hydrogen storage, and discussed in depth in Chapters 5 and 6, are now used in concentrating solar power plants to store power produced from intermittent solar radiation. New catalysts are being discovered for generating hydrogen from water using sunlight: porous silicon with pore size 8–15 nm; nontoxic, cheap, and abundant materials like tin oxides for water-splitting reactions using visible light; and cobalt-containing molecules grafted to semiconductors and subnanometer gold clusters, to name a few. Recently, it was found that a combination of aluminum oxide, water, and olivine subjected to 2 kbar pressure at 200–300°C liberates hydrogen from water while the remaining oxygen converts olivine to serpentine. Automobile companies are turning to hydrogen in order to meet the exacting standards for emissions and fuel economy.
The future is closer than we think."
—N. Balasubramaniani in the MRS Bulletin, July 2014
"I wish this book or something like it had been around years ago, as it demystifies the aforementioned options and then some. … I’m happy to add this useful book to our lab’s technical library."
—Richard Engel in The Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Letter, August 2013
"This book is a timely publication on exploring the possibilities of storing hydrogen for commercial applications. It covers most, if not all, important components of hydrogen storage and its automotive applications. … Recommended."
—J. Tavakoli, in CHOICE, August 2013
"… a breath of fresh air in the field of hydrogen storage. While a great deal has already been written on this topic, this book is unique in that it combines materials science, physics and engineering aspects on various hydrogen storage methods into a single volume, not forgetting application issues. Given that the book summarizes the current state of the art of hydrogen storage in an easy-to-read and yet authoritative manner, it should be treated as compulsory reading for students and researchers in the field. … I am convinced that the book will become yet another landmark in the quest for introducing hydrogen as a renewable energy carrier in our daily life."
—Professor Klaus Yvon, Physics Department, University of Geneva, Switzerland
"Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications is a comprehensive, informative, and timely treatise on a technology area that is critical for emerging hydrogen fuel cell power systems. The editor provides a compelling motivation for the development of a robust energy carrier infrastructure based on hydrogen. In addition, leading scientists and engineers in the fields of hydrogen storage materials research and hydrogen fuel cell systems engineering provide excellent overviews of the current state of the art of specific storage approaches, and they candidly discuss remaining challenges and prospects for the successful implementation of those approaches in practical power conversion systems. The book is a well-written, in-depth look at a vital technology area, and I feel that it will undoubtedly become an important resource for students, researchers, engineers, and policy makers who are working to improve our global energy and environmental future."
—Gregory L. Olson, Ph.D., Consultant to U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and HRL Laboratories (retired)
"This book provides an invaluable, comprehensive resource to researchers interested in the development of hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell vehicles."
—Jeffrey R. Long, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, USA