Hyperspectral Satellites and System Design: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Hyperspectral Satellites and System Design

1st Edition

By Shen-En Qian

CRC Press

632 pages | 277 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780367217907
pub: 2020-03-19
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Description

Hyperspectral Satellites and System Design is the first book on this subject. It provides a systematic analysis and detailed design of the entire development process of hyperspectral satellites. Derived from the author’s 25-year firsthand experience as a technical lead of space missions at the Canadian Space Agency, the book offers engineers, scientists and decision-makers detailed knowledge, know-how and guidelines on hyperspectral satellite system design, trade-offs, performance modeling and simulation, optimization from component to system level, subsystem design and implementation strategies. This information will help reduce the risk, shorten the development period and lower the cost of hyperspectral satellite missions.

Hyperspectral Satellites and System Design is a must-have reference for professionals in developing hyperspectral satellites and in data applications. It is also an excellent introductory book for early practitioners and students who want to learn more about hyperspectral satellites and their applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction of Hyperspectral Satellites
    1. Spaceborne Spectroscopy and Imaging
    2. Hyperspectral Imaging Approaches
      1. Dispersive Elements Based Approach
        1. Whiskbroom Mode
        2. Pushbroom Mode

      2. Spectral Filters Based Approach
        1. Linear Variable Filters
        2. On-chip Stepped Fabry-Perot Filters
        3. Electronically Tunable Filters

      3. Snapshot Hyperspectral Imagers
        1. Multi-Aperture Filtered Camera
        2. Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imager
        3. Image Mapping Spectrometry
        4. Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer
        5. On-chip Fabry-Perot Filters

    3. Hyperspectral Imaging from Aircraft to Spacecraft
      1. Scientific Rationale for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing
      2. History of Development of Airborne Hyperspectral Imagers
        1. First Airborne Hyperspectral Imager – AIS
        2. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Development between 80’s and 90’s
        3. Early Imaging Spectrometer Development in Canada

      3. Planned NASA Orbiting Imaging Spectrometers in 1990’s
      4. Two Major Airborne Hyperspectral Imager Developments Since the Beginning
        1. Difference between Airborne and Spaceborne Hyperspectral Imaging
        2. AVIRIS and Its Next Generation
        3. CASI and Its Spectrally and Spatially Extended Siblings

    Reference

  2. Overview of Hyperspectral Sensors on Orbits
    1. Spaceborne Hyperspectral Sensors at a Glance
    2. Ultraviolet and Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI)
    3. HyperSpectral Imager (HSI) for the LEWIS mission
    4. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua Satellites
    5. Hyperion onboard EO-1 Mission
    6. Compact High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHIRS) on PROBA Satellite
    7. Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) onboard ESA’s ENVISAT
    8. Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) for Rosetta, Venus-Express and NASA-Dawn Planetary Missions
    9. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM)
    10. Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)
    11. Fourier Transform Hyperspectral Imager (FTHSI) onboard Chinese Environment Protection Satellite HJ-1A
    12. Hyperspectral Imager (HySI) onboard Indian Mini Satellite-1 (IMS-1)
    13. Advanced Responsive Tactically Effective Military Imaging Spectrometer (ARTEMIS) onboard TacSat-3
    14. Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) onboard the International Space Station
    15. Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) aboard Chang’E 3 Spacecraft
    16. Ocean and Land Color Imager (OLCI) on Sentinel-3A
    17. Miniature High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on GHGSat-D
    18. Aalto-1 Spectral Imager (AaSI) on a 3U Nanosatellite
    19. DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer (DESIS) on the International Space Station
    20. HyperScout Hyperspectral Camera on a 6U Nanosatellite (GomX-4B)
    21. Advanced Hyperspectral Imager (AHSI) on Chinese Gaofen-5 Satellite
    22. Italian Hyperspectral Satellite PRISMA
    23. Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI)
    24. German Hyperspectral Imager for Environment Mapping and Analysis (EnMap)
    25. Moons and Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer of ESA’s Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer

    Reference

  3. Overview of Applications of Hyperspectral Satellites in Earth Observations
    1. Remote Sensing Applications from Multispectral to Hyperspectral Imaging
    2. Agriculture and Precision Farming
      1. Crop Stress Mitigation and Site Specific Management
        1. Nutrient Deficiencies
        2. Water Content in Crop Canopy and Soil
        3. Weed Detection and Mapping
        4. Mapping of Crop Disease and Insect Damage

      2. Crop Productivity and Yield
      3. Soil Quality / Erosion
      4. Agro-environmental Health Monitoring and Forecasting

    3. Environment and Sustainability
      1. Wetland Applications
      2. Environmental Geology
      3. Land Degradation and Soils Mapping
      4. Climate Change

    4. Marine, Coastal and Inland Waters
      1. Applications in Marine Environments
      2. Impacts of Land Use and River Runoff
      3. Eutrophication and Harmful Algae Blooms in Lakes, Rivers and Coastal areas
      4. Fisheries Applications
      5. Land-Related Water Applications
      6. Coastal Zone Environment and Change Detection

    5. Forestry Applications
      1. Hyperspectral Forest Products
      2. Forest Inventory
      3. Forest Chemistry
      4. Kyoto Products

    6. Geology and Mineral Exploration
      1. Lithologic Mapping
      2. Geobotanical Mapping

    7. Defense and Security
      1. Target Detection
        1. Spectral Unmixing Based Target Detection
        2. Stochastic Detection Algorithms

      2. Terrain Mapping
      3. Soil Characterization and Disturbance
      4. Marine Applications
        1. Near-shore Bathymetry

      5. Detection of Landmines
        1. Using VNIR Hyperspectral Imagery
        2. Using SWIR Hyperspectral Imagery
        3. Using TIR Hyperspectral Imagery and Combined Sensing

    Reference

  4. Mission Concept and Trade-off Study
    1. Hyperspectral Satellite configuration
    2. Hyperspectral Satellite Earth Orbits
      1. Low Earth orbits
      2. Sun-synchronous orbits
      3. Geosynchronous and Highly Elliptical Orbits

    3. Mission development Phases
    4. Analysis of Users Needs
      1. Understanding Users’ Needs
      2. Environment
        1. Atmospheric Quality Monitoring
        2. Fresh Water Quality Monitoring
        3. Wetlands Habitat Monitoring
        4. Land Reclamation Monitoring

      3. Coastal and Inland Waters
        1. Enhanced Water Quality Monitoring
        2. Water Clarity
        3. Monitoring and Assessing Harmful Algal Blooms

      4. Agriculture
        1. Annual Crop Inventory Report
        2. Crop Health Monitoring
        3. Crop Insurance
        4. Precision Farming

      5. Forestry and Mining
        1. Forest Inventory Management
        2. Monitoring and Management of Forest Health
        3. Forest Biomass Estimates
        4. Environmental Impact Monitoring of Mining Operations
        5. Lithological and Mineral Mapping

      6. Defence and Security

    5. A Hyperspectral Mission Concept Case Study
      1. Mission Description and Requirements
      2. Orbit and Coverage Trade-Off
        1. Orbit Selection
        2. Number of Satellites
        3. Orbit Altitude Selection

      3. Hyperspectral Imaging Technology Trade-Off
      4. Trade-Off of Data Collection, Compression, Storage, and Downlink
      5. Mission Concept Overview
        1. Space Segment
        2. Ground Segment
        3. System Calibration
        4. Concept of Operation

      6. Payload Concept
        1. Optical Unit
        2. Instrument Control and Onboard Data Handling

      7. Spacecraft Concept
        1. Selection of Spacecraft Platform
        2. Spacecraft Platform Structure
        3. Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem
        4. Power Subsystem
        5. Thermal Control Subsystem
        6. Telemetry/Telecommand and Data Downlink
        7. Onboard Controller and Data Handling
        8. Propulsion

      8. Launch Options
        1. Launch Requirements
        2. 1-Level Launchers
        3. 2-Level Launchers

    Reference

  5. Optical System and Design
    1. Optical System Overview
      1. Instrument Front End Functions
        1. Input Port Cover
        2. External Baffles
        3. Pointing Mirrors and Gimbals
        4. Spectral Calibration Source
        5. Radiometric Calibration Source

      2. Fore-optics
        1. Telescope
        2. Slit Assembly
        3. Internal Baffles

      3. Spectrometers and Associated Detector Arrays
        1. VNIR Spectrometer
        2. VNIR Detector Array(s)
        3. SWIR Spectrometer
        4. SWIR Detector Array(s)
        5. Overlapping spatial and spectral sampling
        6. Preamplifiers
        7. Focal Plane Cooling
        8. Panchromatic Camera
        9. Panchromatic Linear Detector

      4. Read out Electronics
        1. VNIR Array Readout
        2. SWIR Array Readout
        3. Panchromatic Readout

      5. Instrument Structure

    2. Optical Design Considerations
      1. Telescope Design Considerations
      2. Spectrometer Design Considerations

    3. Telescope Design
      1. Refracting Telescopes
      2. Reflecting Telescopes
      3. Catadioptric Telescopes
      4. Telescope Design Examples
        1. Telescope A – A Non-coaxial TMA
        2. Telescope B – An On-axis TMA
        3. Telescope C – A Two-Mirror Compact Telescope

    4. Slit Scan Spectrometers
      1. Principle of Dispersive Spectrometers
      2. Grating Spectrometers
        1. Ebert-Fastie Spectrometer
        2. Czerny-Turner Spectrometer
        3. Paschen-Runge Spectrometer and Rowland Spectrometer

      3. Prism Spectrometers
      4. Two Typical Spectrometers Used in Spaceborne Hyperspectral Imagers
        1. Offner Spectrometers
        2. Dyson Spectrometers
        3. Comparison Dyson spectrometer vs Offner spectrometer

      5. Spectrometer Design Examples
        1. A Dyson Spectrometer for VNIR
        2. A Dyson Spectrometer for SWIR
        3. A Grating Spectrometer for VNIR
        4. A Grating Spectrometer for SWIR
        5. A Prism Spectrometer for SWIR
        6. A Dyson Spectrometer for VNIR with a Larger Entrance Pupil
        7. Comparison of the Design Examples

    5. Slit Assembly and Beam Splitter
      1. Distributing Light Using a Slit Assembly
      2. Distributing Light Using a Beam Splitter

    6. Depolarizer
      1. Polarization Sensitivity
      2. MERIS Type Depolarizer
      3. Dual Babinet Depolarizer and Variant
      4. Examples of Depolarizers in Space Missions

    7. Imaging Spectrometer Optical Design Examples
      1. Imaging Spectrometer System 1
        1. System 1 Overview
        2. System 1 VNIR Grating Spectrometer
        3. System 1 SWIR Prism Spectrometer

      2. Imaging Spectrometer System 2
        1. System 2 Overview
        2. System 2 VNIR Grating Spectrometer
        3. System 2 SWIR Prism Spectrometer

      3. Imaging Spectrometer System 3
        1. System 3 Overview
        2. System 3 VNIR Grating Spectrometer
        3. System 3 SWIR Prism Spectrometer

      4. Summary of Three Designed Imaging Spectrometer Systems

    Reference

  6. Focal Plane Arrays
    1. From Instrument Requirements to Focal Plane Array Specification
    2. CCD FPAs
    3. CMOS FPAs
      1. Monolithic CMOS FPAs
      2. Hybrid CMOS FPAs
      3. Comparison CCD versus CMOS FPAs

    4. SWIR FPAs
      1. HgCdTe FPAs
      2. InGaAs FPAs
      3. HgCdTe versus InGaAs for SWIR FPAs

    5. Hyperspectral FPAs
    6. Considerations of FPA Selection
      1. Detector pixel size
      2. Quantum Efficiency
      3. Dark Current
      4. Dark Current Non-Uniformity
      5. Photo-Response Non-uniformity
      6. Readout Noise

    Reference

  7. Hyperspectral Imager System Performance Modelling
    1. Configuration of Exemplary Hyperspectral Imaging Systems
      1. Telescope
      2. Spectrometer
      3. Detector Arrays

    2. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Simulation
      1. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Model
        1. Signal Model
        2. Noise Model
        3. Saturation Signal Model

      2. Assumptions for SNR Simulation
        1. Input Radiance
        2. Quantum Efficiency
        3. Detector Parameters
        4. Grating Efficiency
        5. Optical Throughput
        6. Spectral Dispersion
        7. 1/f Noise and Electronics Noise
        8. Ageing Degradation

      3. Results of SNR Simulation
        1. Dual Dyson Hyperspectral Imagers
        2. Dual Offner Hyperspectral Imagers
        3. Dual Prism Hyperspectral Imagers – Case 1
        4. Dual Prism Hyperspectral Imagers – Case 2
        5. Dual Prism Hyperspectral Imagers – Case 3
        6. Summary of SNR Simulation

    3. Modelling Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)
      1. MTF Model
      2. Assumptions for MTF Modelling
      3. MTF Results

    4. Modelling Spectral Response
      1. Spectral Response Model
      2. Spectral Response Assumptions
      3. Spectral Response Results

    5. Point Spread Function Analysis
      1. Point Spread Function Model
      2. Point Spread Function Modeling Results

    Reference

  8. Thermal and Mechanical Design
    1. Basics of Thermal and Mechanical Design
    2. Thermal Environment
      1. Sunlight
      2. Albedo
      3. Earth Infrared
      4. Interplanetary Environments

    3. Passive Thermal Control
      1. Surface Finish
      2. Insulation
      3. Radiator

    4. Active Thermal Control
      1. Heater
      2. Thermoelectric Cooler
      3. Stirling Cryocooler and Pulse Tube Cryocooler
      4. Heat Pipe

    5. Thermal Design Analysis
      1. Thermal Design Process Overview
      2. Hyperspectral Satellites Thermal Design Considerations
      3. Hyperspectral Sensor Thermal Design Examples
        1. Hyperion Thermal Design
        2. CRISM Thermal Design
        3. EnMAP Thermal Design

    6. Structural Analysis
    7. Mechanisms
    8. Thermal and Structure Design Examples
      1. VIRTIS for Three Planetary Missions
        1. VIRTIS Thermal Design
        2. VIRTIS Structure Design

      2. PRISMA Hyperspectral Imager
      3. MAJIS for Exploring Galilean Moons of Jupiter
        1. MAJIS Thermal Design
        2. MAJIS Structure Design

    Reference

  9. In-flight Calibration Design
    1. Importance of Onboard Calibration
      1. In-flight Calibration for Monitoring Instrument Behavior
      2. Instrument Calibration and Validation
      3. Relationship Between Spectral and Radiometric Calibration

    2. Review of Onboard Calibration Systems
      1. MERIS
      2. Hyperion
      3. MODIS
      4. SCIAMACHY
      5. VIRTIS
      6. PRISMA
      7. EnMAP
      8. HISUI

    3. Onboard Radiometric Calibration Techniques
      1. Solar-Based Calibration
        1. Solar Diffuser
        2. Solar Diffuser with Ratioing Radiometer
        3. Integrating Sphere with Solar Illumination

      2. Radiative Source-Based Calibration
        1. Diffuser Panel with Lamps
        2. Integrating Sphere with Lamp Illumination
        3. Light Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes
        4. Blackbody

      3. Vicarious Calibration
        1. Advances of Vicarious Calibration
        2. Ground-Based Vicarious Calibration
        3. Lunar Calibration
        4. Stable Deserts
        5. Sun Glint
        6. High Altitude Clouds
        7. Molecular Scattering over Oceans

      4. Offset Correction
        1. Offset Signal of Detector Arrays
        2. Frame Method
        3. Masked Pixel Method

      5. Summary of Radiometric Calibration Techniques

    4. Onboard Spectral Calibration Techniques
      1. Onboard Spectral Calibration Strategy
      2. Filtered QTH Spectral Line Sources
      3. Monochromator
      4. Doped Spectralon Diffuser
      5. Atmospheric/Solar Lines
      6. LED Spectral Line Sources
      7. Etalon
      8. Summary of Spectral Calibration Techniques

    5. Concept Design Examples of Onboard Calibration System
      1. Concept Design 1
      2. Concept Design 2
      3. Concept Design 3

    Reference

  10. Instrument Control and Onboard Data Handling Subsystem
    1. Functions of Instrument Control and Onboard Data Handling Subsystem
    2. Configuration of Instrument Control and Onboard Data Handling Subsystem
    3. Processing, Formatting and Control Units (PFCU)
      1. Architecture of PFCU
      2. Data Acquisition
        1. Instrument Data Acquisition
        2. Ancillary Data
        3. Virtual Channel Multiplexing

      3. Onboard Data Compression
        1. VIRTIS Lossless and Lossy Data Compression
        2. CRISM Data Editing and Lossless Compression
        3. M3 Lossless Data Compression
        4. HISUI Onboard Lossless Data Compression
        5. EnMap Onboard Data Compression
        6. Vector Quantization Based Near-Lossless Compression
        7. CCSDS Recommended Data Compression Standards

      4. Transmission Chain
      5. Control and Monitoring
      6. Timing Generation
      7. Redundancy and Packaging

    4. Mass Memory Unit
    5. Proximity Electronics and Service Module Electronics
      1. FPAs Proximity Electronics
      2. Service Module Electronics

    6. Electrical Interfaces
      1. Cross-Strapping
      2. Instrument Interfaces
      3. MMU Interfaces
      4. X-/Ka-Band Downlink Interfaces
      5. Spacecraft Bus Interfaces

    Reference

  11. Ground Segment
    1. Overview of Ground Segment
      1. Ground Stations
      2. Mission Control Centers
      3. Ground Networks
      4. Remote Terminals
      5. Hyperspectral Data Product Level

    2. Ground Segment Context
      1. Interface to Space Segment
        1. Spacecraft Commands
        2. Imagery and Ancillary Data
        3. Instrument Calibration Parameters
        4. Telemetry

      2. Interface to Calibration Support Data Sources
      3. Interface to Customers
        1. Browsing Dialogue
        2. Data Orders
        3. Product Orders
        4. Order Acknowledgment
        5. Level 1B Products
        6. Order Results

    3. Ground Segment Functional Decomposition
      1. Order Management
      2. Acquisition Planning
      3. Command and Control
      4. Control Communication Link
      5. Data Communication Link
      6. Preprocessing
      7. Archive
      8. Calibration
      9. Product Processing
      10. Cataloguing
      11. Catalogue

    4. Operation and Data Flow between Functions
      1. Order Management to Acquisition Planning
        1. Feasibility Check
        2. Feasibility Result
        3. Collection Order
        4. Collection Order Result

      2. Acquisition Planning to Command and Control
        1. Acquisition Plan
        2. Acquisition Plan Result
        3. Resource Constraints
        4. Predicted Ephemeris

      3. Command and Control to Control Communication Link
        1. Contact Setup Dialogue
        2. Spacecraft Commands
        3. Instrument Calibration Parameters
        4. Telemetry

      4. Acquisition Planning to Data Communication Link
        1. Reception Setup Dialogue
        2. Reception Result

      5. Acquisition Planning to Preprocessing
        1. Downlink Plan

      6. Data Communication Link to Preprocessing
        1. Framed Imagery Data

      7. Preprocessing to Archive
        1. Preprocessed Data

      8. Archive to Cataloguing
        1. Preprocessed Data
        2. Calibration Parameters

      9. Cataloguing to Acquisition Planning
        1. Archive Report

      10. Cataloguing to Catalogue
        1. Catalogue Update

      11. Archive to Product Processing
        1. Preprocessed Data
        2. Calibration Parameters

      12. Order Management to Product Processing
        1. Production Order
        2. Production Order Result

      13. Product Processing to Calibration
        1. Level 1A Product

      14. Calibration to Command and Control
        1. Spacecraft Calibration Parameters

      15. Calibration to Archive
        1. Calibration Parameters

    5. Operational Scenarios
      1. Ordering New Data
        1. Preliminary Events
        2. Customer Interaction
        3. Planning, Command and Control
        4. Space Segment Control
        5. Data Reception
        6. Preprocessing, Archiving and Cataloguing
        7. Completing the Order

      2. Ordering Level 1B Data Product
        1. Customer Interaction
        2. Product Processing
        3. Completing the Order

      3. Conducting Onboard Instrument Calibration and Generating Calibration Coefficients

    Reference

  12. On-Ground Calibration and Characterization
    1. Rationale of On Ground Calibration and Characterization
    2. Calibration and Characterization Types of Hyperspectral Sensors
      1. Radiometric
      2. Spectral
      3. Geometric
      4. Spatial Co-registration
      5. Spatial Resolution and Modulation Transfer Function
      6. Linearity
      7. Uniformity
      8. Rectilinearity
      9. Polarization Sensitivity
      10. Stray Light
      11. Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    3. Analysis of Spectral and Spatial Error Sources
      1. Background of Spectral and Spatial Error Sources
      2. Thermal Drifts
        1. Mirror Substrates and Prism
        2. Thin Film Coating Instabilities
        3. Gratings

      3. Radiation
        1. Mirror Substrates
        2. Prism Glass
        3. Gratings
        4. Color Glass Filters and Thin Film Coatings

      4. Contamination and Atomic Oxygen
      5. Micrometeorite Damage

    4. Spectral Calibration Requirement Analysis
      1. Spectral Linearity
      2. Temperature Sensitivity
      3. Simulation of Spectral Calibration
      4. An Example of Scene-Based Spectral Calibration

    5. Prelaunch Calibration
      1. Considerations with respect to Ground-Based Absolute Calibration
      2. An example - MODIS Prelaunch Calibration

    6. Absolute and Relative Radiometric Calibration

    Reference

  13. Radiometric Conversion and Data Correction
    1. Conversion to At-Sensor Radiance and Top-of-Atmosphere Reflectance
      1. Process of Conversion from Raw Data to Radiance and Reflectance
      2. Radiometric Response Modeling of a Hyperspectral Sensor
      3. Conversion to At-sensor Radiance
        1. MERIS Conversion to At-sensor Radiance
        2. Hyperion Level 0 and 1 Processing to Generate At-sensor Radiance
        3. EnMAP Level 0 and 1 Processing to Generate At-sensor Radiance

      4. Conversion to Top-of-Atmosphere Reflectance

    2. Smile Detection and Correction
      1. Spectral Distortion - Smile
      2. Smile Correction Using Atmospheric Absorption Feature Matching

    3. Keystone Detection and Correction
      1. Spatial Distortion - Keystone
      2. Measuring Keystone Using Interband Correlation of Spectral Features

    4. De-striping and Noise Reduction
      1. De-striping
      2. Random Noise Reduction

    5. A Case Study of Data Correction and Its Effectiveness
      1. Test Data Set
      2. Data Processing Procedure
      3. Evaluation Results of Statistical Measures
      4. Evaluation Results Using a Target Detection Application

    Reference

  14. Atmospheric Correction
    1. Atmospheric Effects on Hyperspectral Data
    2. Statistics-Based Atmospheric Correction Approaches
      1. Empirical Line Method
      2. Internal Average Relative Reflectance
      3. Flat Field Correction
      4. Cloud Shadow Method
      5. Dense Dark Vegetation Algorithm

    3. Radiative Transfer Modeling for Physics-Based Atmospheric Correction
    4. Radiative Transfer Modeling Based Methods for Land Scenes
      1. Atmosphere Removal Algorithm (ATREM)
      2. Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH)
      3. High-accuracy Atmospheric Correction for Hyperspectral Data (HATCH)
      4. Atmosphere Correction Now (ACORN)
      5. 5D LUT Approach in Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis System (ISDAS)
      6. Atmospheric and Topographic Correction (ATCOR)

    5. Radiative Transfer Modeling Based Methods for Water Scenes
      1. Atmospheric Correction over Optically-Complex Water Scene
      2. Black-Pixel Assumption NIR Algorithm
      3. NIR Similarity Spectrum Algorithm
      4. NIR-SWIR Algorithm with Turbid Water Index
      5. Self-Contained Atmospheric Parameters Estimation
      6. Modified NIR Black-Pixel Method
      7. Direct Inversion Approach Using Neural Network

Reference

About the Author

Dr. Shen-En Qian is a senior scientist, scientific authority of government contracts and technical lead of space missions at the Canadian Space Agency. He has written three books on optical satellites and their signal processing, authored chapters in five others and edited a book on optical payloads for space missions. He has published 120 papers. He holds 35 granted patents in U.S., Europe, Canada and Australia developed in Canadian government laboratory. He received IEEE Canada Outstanding Engineer Award and Silver Medal in 2019.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical
TEC019000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Lasers & Photonics
TEC036000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems