Hypoxic Respiratory Failure in the Newborn : From Origins to Clinical Management book cover
1st Edition

Hypoxic Respiratory Failure in the Newborn
From Origins to Clinical Management

ISBN 9780367493998
Published October 29, 2021 by CRC Press
268 Pages 48 Color & 25 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

We have all been hypoxic. Fetal tolerance for intrauterine hypoxia arises from evolutionarily conserved physiological mechanisms, the antecedents of which can be learned from diving mammals or species at high altitudes. Understanding fetal hypoxia leads to understanding the huge physiological shifts of neonatal transition and the dangers of perinatal hypoxia.

This comprehensive volume of topical review articles by expert authors addresses the origins of hypoxia tolerance, the impact of oxygen on circulatory transition at birth, and the biochemistry of hypoxia in the pulmonary circuit, as well as the classification, diagnosis, and clinical management of hypoxic respiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the term neonate.

The goal of Hypoxic Respiratory Failure in the Newborn is to connect our understanding of hypoxia from animals in extreme environments, with how the human fetus handles its hypoxic environment; and why the human newborn suddenly cannot. The book will educate health care professionals on how to care for newborns with hypoxic respiratory failure, including the use of up-to-date diagnostic tools and therapies. It also highlights areas of controversy and ongoing research in hypoxic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, including challenging case studies.

Key Features

  • Explores evolutionary context and comparative physiology of hypoxia tolerance in the fetus and neonate, from basic research to clinical scenarios
  • Provides guidance to trainees, physicians, and allied health professionals engaged in NICU care; pediatricians, cardiologists, pulmonologists, anesthesiologists, neonatologists, and physiologists to effectively manage infants in hypoxic respiratory failure
  • Includes case scenarios emphasizing current diagnostic and therapeutic controversies and algorithmic approaches to decipher difficult clinical cases

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
Shyamala Dakshinamurti, William K. Milsom, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Steven H. Abman, Po-Yin Cheung, Patrick McNamara

Part 1: The Origins of Hypoxia Tolerance    
edited by William K. Milsom

2. The Human Fetus and Metabolic Adaptations to Hypoxia
Dominique Singer

3. Hypoxia as a Neuroinflammatory Stimulus During Development
Peter M. MacFarlane, Allison S. Osborne

4. Human Adaptations to High Altitude
Tatum Simonson

5. Fetal Llama Adaptation to Altitude in the Andean Altiplano
Aníbal J. Llanos, German Ebensperger, Emilio A. Herrera, Roberto V. Reyes, María Serón-Ferré

6. Neonates of Burrowing and Hibernating Mammals: Metabolic and Respiratory Adaptations to Hypoxia
Yvonne A. Dzal, William K. Milsom

7. Diving Response and Hypoxia in Deep Sea Mammals
Allyson Hindle

8. The Phylogeny and Ontogeny of Cardiorespiratory Coupling in Vertebrates and its Relevance to Non-Invasive Monitoring of the Human Fetus
Edwin W. Taylor, Harry Gee

Part 2:  Fetal Hypoxia and Neonatal Transition    
edited by Satyan Lakshminrusimha

9. Fetal and Neonatal Oxygen Environment
Payam Vali, Robin H. Steinhorn, Satyan Lakshminrusimha

10. Fetal Oxygenation During Maternal Hypoxic Illness
Fabiana Postolow, Shyamala Dakshinamurti

11. Hemodynamics of the Circulatory Transition
Graeme R. Polglase, Martin Kluckow, Andrew W. Gill, Stuart B. Hooper

12. Oxygen During Postnatal Stabilization
Maximo Vento, Ola D. Saugstad

Part 3: Biology of Hypoxic Respiratory Failure in the Neonate 
edited by Steven H. Abman

13. Hypoxia and Pulmonary Artery Structure
Csaba Galambos, Steven H. Abman

14. Animal Models of PPHN and Vasoconstrictor Signaling in Hypoxia
Candice D. Fike, Judy L. Aschner

15. Hypoxia and Endothelial Dysfunction in the Lung
Emily Callan, Girija Ganesh Konduri

16. Effects of Hypoxia on Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and Relaxation
Shyamala Dakshinamurti, Anjali Y. Bhagirath, Robert P. Jankov

17. Cellular Oxygen Sensing, Mitochondrial Oxygen Sensing and Reactive Oxygen Species
Jason Boehme, Emin Maltepe

18. Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Animal Models of Pulmonary Hypertension
Stephen Wedgwood, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Robin H. Steinhorn

19. Hypoxia, Myocardial Metabolic Adaptation and Right Ventricular Performance
Mark K. Friedberg

20. Hypoxic Remodeling of Neonatal Pulmonary Artery and Myocardium
Hui Zhang, R. Dale Brown, Jason Williams, Cassidy Delaney, Kurt R. Stenmark

21. Hypoxia-Induced Epigenetic Mechanisms of Pulmonary Hypertension
Kurt H. Albertine

Part 4:  Hypoxia and Collateral Damage   
edited by Po-Yin Cheung

22. The Effects of Hypoxia Ischemia on the Term Brain, and A Strategic Approach
Aravanan Anbu Chakkarapani, Nicola J. Robertson

23. Effects of Hypoxia on Cerebral Perfusion and the Blood-Brain Barrier
Divyen K. Shah, W. L. Amelia Lee, David F. Wertheim, Stephen T. Kempley

24. Effects of Hypoxia on Airway, Alveolar Function and Respiration
Y.S. Prakash, Christina M. Pabelick, Peter M. MacFarlane

25. Hypoxic Respiratory Failure and the Neonatal Kidney
Catherine Morgan, Po-Yin Cheung

26. The Effect of Hypoxia on Intestinal Function
Eric B. Ortigoza, Josef Neu

27. Effects of Hypoxia on Perinatal Drug Disposition 
Karel Allegaert, Anne Smits, Pieter Annaert

28. Anesthetic Considerations for the Neonate with Hypoxic Respiratory Failure
M. Ruth Graham

Part 5: Diagnosis and Management of Neonatal Hypoxic Respiratory Failure  
edited by Patrick J. McNamara

29. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Infants with Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
Souvik Mitra, Roberta L. Keller, Prakesh S. Shah

30. Clinical Evaluation of Hypoxic Respiratory Failure
Yasser Elsayed, Shyamala Dakshinamurti

31. Diagnosis of Pulmonary Hypertension by Echocardiography
Danielle R. Rios, Patrick J. McNamara, Regan E. Giesinger

32. Right Ventricular Performance and Ventricular Interdependence in Hypoxia
Afif El Khuffash, Philip T. Levy

33. Ventilation Strategies in Neonatal Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
Bradley A. Yoder, Michelle J. Yang, Nicholas R. Carr, Martin Keszler

34. Pulmonary Hypertension Phenotypes in the Newborn
Regan E. Giesinger, John P. Kinsella, Steven H. Abman, Patrick J. McNamara

35. Special Consideration: HRF in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
Gabriel Altit, Jason Gien, Nolan DeLeon, Richard Keijzer 

36. Special Consideration: Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure Among Patients with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
Arvind Sehgal, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Regan E. Giesinger

37. Special Consideration: HRF in the Preterm
Michelle Baczynski, Amish Jain, Dany E. Weisz

38. Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure – Neonatal Cases
Adrianne Rahde Bischoff, Faith Zhu, Amish Jain, Patrick J. McNamara

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Dr Shyamala Dakshinamurti is a neonatologist and biomedical researcher, Professor of Pediatrics and Physiology at the University of Manitoba, Canada, and member of the Biology of Breathing theme, Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba.

Section Editors

Dr Steven H. Abman is Professor of Pediatrics and Director of the Pediatric Heart Lung Center at the University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine and the Children’s Hospital Colorado, USA.

Dr Po-Yin Cheung is a neonatologist of the Northern Alberta Neonatal Program of Alberta Health Services and Professor in the Departments of Pediatrics, Pharmacology and Surgery at the University of Alberta, Canada.

Dr Satyan Lakshminrusimha is a neonatologist and the Dennis and Nancy Marks Chair and Professor of Pediatrics at the University of California at Davis, Sacramento, USA.

Dr Patrick McNamara is a staff neonatologist and Director of the Division of Neonatology at the University of Iowa Stead Family Children’s Hospital and Professor of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, USA.

Dr William K. Milsom is a comparative physiologist and Emeritus Professor of Zoology at the University of British Columbia, Canada.


'This book elects to follow the thread of hypoxia, as an originating etiology and defining feature of neonatal pulmonary hypertension. It is a comprehensive and thematic volume of topical articles by world renowned authors, and has assembled all information pertinent to this topic in 38 chapters divided into 5 distinct sections, each marshalled by a dedicated co-editor. This strong interdisciplinary editorial team brings to bear complementary theoretical and practical expertise in different aspects of hypoxia and respiratory failure, and clearly a wide-ranging contact list – the book has over 80 contributing authors. Salient features of this book are helpful signaling pathway diagrams, conceptual illustrations, and synthesis figures by Satyan Lakshminrusimha.
Reading the whole volume provides a satisfying continuous narrative of hypoxia through the evolutionary and developmental timeline, and deeper insight into what might appear to be only a superficial problem solved by turning up the oxygen dial. This book is therefore recommended to practicing clinicians as much as to scholars in this field of science.'

Dr Kurt Stenmark

'It is the most comprehensive discussion of this topic to be found anywhere in the literature. […] There are no comparable texts on this subject, although hypoxia and PPHN are discussed in every standard neonatal textbook. The five authors and the over 80 contributors are the world's research leaders in this topic and are to be congratulated on this superb publication.'

Jay P. Goldsmith, MD (Tulane University School of Medicine), Doody Enterprises