IP Telephony Interconnection Reference: Challenges, Models, and Engineering, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

IP Telephony Interconnection Reference

Challenges, Models, and Engineering, 1st Edition

By Mohamed Boucadair, Isabel Borges, Pedro Miguel Neves, Olafur Pall Einarsson

CRC Press

390 pages | 141 B/W Illus.

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Description

Addressing the growth of IP telephony service offerings within the corporate and residential realm, IP Telephony Interconnection Reference: Challenges, Models, and Engineering examines the technical and regulatory issues related to IP telephony interconnection at the large scale. It describes business and interconnection models, reviews emerging architectures such as IMS and TISPAN, identifies commonly-encountered issues, and supplies solutions to technical issues.

The authors offer a detailed overview of SPEERMINT activity and proposed architecture, the current work undertaken in i3 Forum, and the use of ENUM for interconnection—describing practices in both fixed and mobile networks. Among the first books to present information on interprovider communications and interconnection of IP telephony clouds, the text supplies a clear and up-to-date picture of the VoIP protocol jungle.

  • Provides detailed guidance on how to implement VoIP interconnect services
  • Presents an overview of deployed architectures in fixed and mobile networks used for interconnection and roaming purposes
  • Enumerates regulatory issues with a focus on Europe and the United States
  • Proposes interconnection models
  • Suggests viable solutions to technical issues

This reference supplies an overview of interconnection practices in PSTN/mobile. It proposes solutions for overcoming service engineering issues and includes a set of recommendations to ease the proliferation of interconnection agreements and schemes. Keeping you up to speed with recent developments in IP telephony, the book facilitates the understanding of the technical and regulatory requirements needed to provide global services to your customers and successfully navigate the upcoming migration to a completely IP-based model.

Table of Contents

Acronyms and Abbreviations

The Rise of IP-Based Voice and the Need for Global IP Telephony Reachability

Introduction

New Challenges on VoIP Service Offerings

Why Global IP Telephony Reachability Is Needed

The VoIP Protocols Jungle

Overview

SIP

SDP

RTP/RTCP

SIP-I

SIP-T

BICC

IAX

DUNDi

TRIP

TGREP

ENUM

What Is This Book about?

IP TELEPHONY: OVERVIEW

Traffic Analysis VoIP versus PSTN /Mobile

This Chapter at a Glance

Fixed VoIP

Focus on France

Focus on Portugal

Focus on Latin America

Focus on South Korea

Focus on the United States

Mobile VoIP

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

References

IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem

What Is IMS?

Transport Layer

Control Layer

Service Layer

IMS Functional Elements

Call Session Control Function (CSCF)

Home Subscription Server (HSS)

PSTN Gateways

Application Servers (AS)

IMS Flow Examples

References

Further Reading

TISP AN Overview

Overview

Brief History Concerning NGN Standardization

Basic Principles

TISPAN Functional Architecture

Brief Description of the Subsystems

Service Level

Transport Layer Protocols

SIP

Diameter

H.248 Interface between NGN and Legacy Networks

PSTN/ISDN Interconnection

IP-Based External Network Interconnection

Interoperator IP Backbone Network

References

Interconnection Practices in PSTN

Overview

Interconnection Services Access

Interconnection Points

Interconnection Circuits

Interconnection Services

Signaling

Traffic Interconnection Circuits

Interconnection through Circuits Provided by Other Operators

Traffic Registration

Interconnection Planning and Developing

Interconnection Establishment Previous Information

Services and New Services

Security and Protection

Numbering

Technical Characteristics

Interconnection Circuits Transmission Characteristics

Signaling Interfaces between Exchanges

Signaling Network Structure

Synchronization between Networks

Quality of Service (QoS)

Operation, Management, and Maintenance

Capacity Resale

Prices

Transit

PSTN Interconnection: Economic Models

CPNP (Calling Party Network Pays)

BAK (Bill and Keep)

Optimize Interconnection Costs

References

Further Reading

Roaming Practices in Mobile Networks

Overview

Roaming

Types of Roaming

Roaming Agreements

Roaming Data

IMS Roaming

References

Interconnection Practices in GPRS Networks

Interconnection Practices in GPRS Networks

IMS Interconnection

Requirements for Voice Calls

SIP Profile

Advanced Services

References

IP TELEPHONY INTERCONNECTION: REQUIREMENTS AND BUSINESS MODEL

Terminology and Definitions

VoIP Service Providers and Telephony Service Providers

VoIP Service Providers

Traditional Service Providers

VoIP Service Providers à la Internet

Definitions

Address of Record

Address of Contact

Back-to-Back User Agent (B2BUA)

Call

Initiator, Calling Party, Caller

Invitee, Invited User, Called Party, Callee

Registrar

End Point

IP Network Provider and Service Provider

IP Telephony Administrative Domain (ITAD)

Proxy Server (PS)

Location Server (LS)

Interconnection Node (IN)

Signaling Path Border Element (SBE)

Data Path Border Element

IP Telephony Administrative Domain and Autonomous Systems

Frontiers between ITADs and ASs

Adjacent Domains

Balanced/Unbalanced Traffic

Symmetric/Asymmetric Telephony Paths

Interconnection and Peering

Anonymization

Assumptions

References

Business Actors and Relationships

Panorama of Main VoIP Service Providers

Incumbent Operators

“Virtual” VoIP Operators

Proprietary Third-Party VoIP Service Providers

Cooperation Agreements between Different Types of VoIP Service Providers

Business Actors Involved in VoIP Interconnection

Customer

End User

Service Provider

Network Provider

Business Relationships

SLA (Service Level Agreement)

CPA (Connectivity Provisioning Agreement)

NIA (Network Interconnection Agreement)

SIA (Service Interconnection Agreement)

Conclusion

References

IP Telephony Interconnection: Service Requirements

Introduction

Telephony Service Providers: Toward Global IP Telephony Services

No Assumption on the Intraprovide Service Engineering

Support of Various Interconnection Models

IP Version Agnostic

Global Coverage

Support of numbering Schemes Other Than E.164

Discovery of Remote Voip Service Providers and Their Capabilities

Service Interconnection Agreement Flexibility

Interoperability

Exchange of Homogenous IP Telephony Routing Data

Avoid Signaling Loop

Ability to Configure the Call Route Selection Process

Support of Multiple Interprovider Telephony Routes

Optimization of Signaling Paths and Media Paths

Resilience and Availability of the VoIP Service at the Service and Control Layers

Synchronize Service Layer and Control Layer

Ability to Detect IP Network Provider Spirals

Ability to Evaluate the QoS Treatment When Selecting a Given Inter-ITAD Path

Operation and Maintenance (O&M)

Charging and Billing

Interprovider Interconnection Agreements Assurance and Monitoring

Support of Import and Export Policies

Security

Protect against SPAM over Telephony (SPIT)

Support of Privacy and Confidentiality

No Assumption on the Negotiated Media Session

Load

Path-Coupled and Path-Decoupled Models

Planned Maintenance Operations

Customer Requirements

Global Reachability

Transparency of Interdomain Media Sessions

Quality of Service (QoS)

Cost

Reliability and Robustness

Ability to evaluate the QoS provided by the VoIP Service

Service Mobility and Roaming

Confidentiality and Privacy

Anonymization and Customization

Freedom of CODEC Usage

Free to Subscribe to a Service Offering

Service Not Bound to a Specific Interface

Environmental Impact

Support of Emergency Calls

Ability to Support Heterogeneous Calls

SLA Verification

References

Further Readings

Telephony Interconnection: Regulatory Constraints

European Commission Activities

Analysis

Constraints on Service Providers Following the Adoption of the Review Proposals

Current Activities in Europe and the United States

Ofcom

OPTA

BNetzA

AGCOM

ANACOM

RTR

FCC (Federal Communication Commission)

References

IP TELEPHONY INTERCONNECTION: STATE-OF-THE-ART AND INTERCONNECTION MODELS

Related Ongoing Activities

Introduction

Current Number Portability Practices

The Need for Number Portability

Types of Number Portability

Service Provider Number Portability Schemes

All Call Query (ACQ)

Query on Release (QoR) Scheme

Call Dropback Scheme

Onward Routing (OR) Scheme

Comparisons of the Various Schemes

Database Queries and Call Routing

Potential Implications for VoIP

ENUM

Overview and Use Cases

ENUM Deployment Models

Source-Based ENUM Query/Answer Mechanism

ISN

i3 Forum

SIP Profile

Media

Dimensioning

SPEERMINT IETF Working Group

Overview

The SPEERMINT Reference Architecture

Interconnection Relationships

VIPR

Voice Peering Fabric

Cable Operators

PacketCable Overview

PacketCable Architecture

Interconnect Functional Component

ENUM Server Provisioning Protocol (ESPP)

References

Further Readings

VoIP Interconnection Models

Introduction

Interconnection Models

Star Model

Centralized Model

Hybrid Model

Cascaded Model

Analysis of Interconnection Models

Reference

Interconnection Nodes: Usage of Session

Border Controllers

Deployment Context

Technical Features

Topology Hiding

Media Traffic Shaping

Fixing Capability Mismatches

NAT Traversal

Access Control

Protocol Repair

Media Encryption

Focus on Interconnection Segment

Interconnection Scenarios

SBCs at the Border of Each ITAD

Shared Interconnection SBC

Telephony Exchange Point

References

Implementation Models for IP Telephony Interconnection at Large

Introduction

DNS-Based Mode

Flooding Approach

Signaling

Media Layer Interactions

References

IP: TELEPHONY INTERCONNECTION ENGINEERING ISSUES AND SOLUTION SPACE

Service Engineering Issues

Content of Agreements

Content of Service Level Agreements (SLA)

Content of Service Interconnection Agreement (SIA)

Advertisement and Discovery

End-to-End Signaling Path Optimization

End-to-End Media Path Optimization

Dynamic and Flexible Interprovider IP Telephony Routing

IP Network Provider Spiraling

Synchronization between the Service and Network Layer

Interprovider Congestion

Interprovider Load Balancing

Optimize Interconnection Costs

Optimize Interconnection Agreements

Bidirectionality Issue

Legal Intercept Issues

Topology Hiding

Correlating between Signaling and Media Streams

Shaping and Policing

Frozen Interconnection Architecture

Interprovider Monitoring

General Overview

What Is Good Quality?

Probes

Signaling

Interprovider Monitoring Issues

Service Interconnection Assurance and Fulfilment

Security Issues

References

Solution Space

Overview

TRIP (Telephony Routing IP Protocol)

Why a Dynamic Protocol Is Needed

TRIP at a Glance

ITAD Numbers

Transport Considerations

TRIP Messages

TRIP Attributes

Extend TRIP to Advertise Diverse URI Schemes

Needs

Proposal

Advertise AS Path in the Telephony Signaling Protocol

INP Spiral Issues

Prevent INP Spiral

Optimize Inter-ITAD Quality of Service (QoS)

Service Need

Solution Proposal

QoS Route Capability

Modified TRIP Route Attribute

On the Utilization of QoS Information

Illustration Example

Interprovider Multiple Paths

Path Diversity

Enhance TRIP to Support Multiple Paths

Procedure

Example

Avoid Inter-ITAD Congestion Phenomenon

Avoid Congested Links and ITADs

TRIP-Based Procedure to Prevent Congestion

Summary

References

VoIP Interconnection Perspectives

About the Authors

Mohamed Boucadair is a Senior IP Architect with France Telecom. He has worked for France Telecom R&D and has been part of the team working on VoIP services. He is now working at the France Telecom corporate division responsible for making recommendations on the evolution of IP/MPLS core networks. He has been involved in IST research projects, working on dynamic provisioning and inter-domain traffic engineering. He has also worked as an R&D engineer in charge of dynamic provisioning, QoS, multicast and intra/inter-domain traffic engineering. He has published many journal articles and written extensively on these subject areas. Mr. Boucadair holds several patents on VoIP, IPv4 service continuity, IPv6, etc.

Maria Isabel Borges received a degree in Electronics and Telecommunications engineering from Aveiro University, Portugal, in 1989 and the MSc from the same University in 1998. From October 1989 to September 1990 she accomplished a post-graduation degree at the same University, and was involved in training students at the laboratory of propagation. From October 1990 to February 1991 she worked at TEKA Portuguesa on a Television Receiver Only system. She joined the PT Inovação, S.A. (PTIN), formerly Centro de Estudos de Telecomunicações, in 1991, working on applied research on optical communications, until 1995. Since then, she has been involved in several national and international R&D programs, namely in the area of development and integration of broadband access networks technologies, ATM, IP networking and Services, and VoIP systems. She is involved in training actions and consulting services. She is author or co-author of several publications on the above-mentioned subjects and a reviewer of IEEE Communications Magazine.

Pedro Neves received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering from the University of Aveiro, Portugal, in 2003 and 2006 respectively. Since 2007 he has also been pursuing a Ph.D. in Computer Engineering and Telecommunications at the same University. After graduation, he became a research fellow of the Telecommunications Institute, where he worked on European funded projects on broadband wireless access networks. In June 2006 he joined PT Inovação, working on heterogeneous wireless environments in the context of European and Eurescom funded projects. In 2010 he began his research activities in the area of cloud computing, with emphasis on the relationship of this paradigm with telecom operators. He participated in more than 10 international collaborative projects, is co-author of five international books, and has published more than 30 articles in journals and conference proceedings.

Ólafur Páll Einarsson received a BSc degree in Electical Engineering from the University of Iceland in Reykjavik in 2005. From there he moved to Copenhagen to continue his education in Telecommunication Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and received an MSc degree in 2007. Following his education he started to work for Icelandic Telecom (Siminn) in R&D where he participated in several national and international research projects. Some of the main areas of specialty are SIM development, mobile security, and integrating a national mobile PKI architecture in Iceland.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COM043000
COMPUTERS / Networking / General
TEC041000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications