Image Encryption : A Communication Perspective book cover
1st Edition

Image Encryption
A Communication Perspective

ISBN 9781466576988
Published December 14, 2013 by CRC Press
418 Pages 232 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches and substitution-based approaches.

Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard, and the RC6 algorithms. It not only details the strength of various encryption algorithms, but also describes their ability to work within the limitations of wireless communication systems.

Since some ciphers were not designed for image encryption, the book explains how to modify these ciphers to work for image encryption. It also provides instruction on how to search for other approaches suitable for this task. To make this work comprehensive, the authors explore communication concepts concentrating on the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system and present a simplified model for the OFDM communication system with its different implementations.

Complete with simulation experiments and MATLAB® codes for most of the simulation experiments, this book will help you gain the understanding required to select the encryption method that best fulfills your application requirements.

Table of Contents


Fundamentals of Image Encryption
Basic Concepts of Cryptography
     Goals of Cryptography 
     Principles of Encryption
Classification of Encryption Algorithms 
     Classification According to Encryption Structure 
     Classification According to Keys 
     Classification According to Percentage of Encrypted Data
Features of Image Encryption Schemes
Conventional Symmetric Block Ciphers 
     Data Encryption Standard
     Double DES 
     Triple DES 
     International Data Encryption Algorithm 
     RC5 Algorithm 
          RC5 Encryption Algorithm 
          RC5 Decryption Algorithm 
          RC5 Key Expansion 
     RC6 Algorithm
          RC6 Encryption Algorithm 
          RC6 Decryption Algorithm 
     The Advanced Encryption Standard
Modes of Operation 
     The ECB Mode 
     The CBC Mode
     The CFB Mode 
     The OFB Mode
Chaos and Cryptography
The 2D Chaotic Baker Map

Encryption Evaluation Metrics
Encryption Evaluation Metrics 
     Histogram Deviation 
     Correlation Coefficient 
     Irregular Deviation 
     Histogram Uniformity 
     Deviation from Ideality 
     Avalanche Effect 
     NPCR and UACI
Other Tests
     Noise Immunity 
     The Processing Time
Testing the Evaluation Metrics

Homomorphic Image Encryption
Homomorphic Cryptosystem
Security Analysis and Test Results 
     Statistical Analysis 
          Histograms of Encrypted Images 
          Encryption Quality Measurements 
     Key Space Analysis 
          Exhaustive Key Search
          Key Sensitivity Test 
     Differential Analysis
Effect of Noise

Chaotic Image Encryption with Different Modes of Operation
Chaotic Encryption with Modes of Operation
Implementation Issues
Simulation Examples and Discussion

Diffusion Mechanism for Data Encryption in the ECB Mode
The Preprocessing Network
     The Addition Part
     The SPN
Implementation Issues 
     Effect of the Normalized Block Size on Diffusion 
     Effect of the Normalized Block Size on Block Dependency
Simulation Examples
     Encryption Quality
     Encryption of Images with Few Details

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Basic Principles of OFDM
     Frequency Domain Orthogonality
OFDM System Model 
     Discrete Wavelet Transform 
          Implementation of the DWT 
          Haar Wavelet Transform
Guard Interval Insertion
Communication Channels 
     Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel 
     Fading Channel
Channel Estimation and Equalization

OFDM Limitations
Analysis of Intercarrier Interference
CFO in FFT-OFDM System Model
CFO in DCT-OFDM System Model
CFO in DWT-OFDM System Model
CFO Compensation
Simulation Parameters
Effect of PAPR
PAPR Reduction Methods 
     The Clipping Method 
     The Companding Method 
     The Hybrid Clipping-and-Companding Method
Simulation Experiments of PAPR Reduction Methods
Sampling Clock Offset 
     System Model

Simulation Examples
Simulation Parameters
Simulation Experiments in the Presence of CFO
Simulation Experiments for Enhanced Algorithms
Simulation Experiments of PAPR Reduction Methods

Appendix A
Appendix B

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Fathi E. Abd El-Samie received the BSc(Honors), MSc, and PhD degrees from Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt, in 1998, 2001, and 2005, respectively. Since 2005, he has been a teaching staff member with the Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University. He is currently a researcher at KACST-TIC in Radio Frequency and Photonics for the e-Society (RFTONICs). He is a co-author of about 200 papers in international conference proceedings and journals and four textbooks. His current research interests include image enhancement, image restoration, image interpolation, superresolution reconstruction of images, data hiding, multimedia communications, medical image processing, optical signal processing, and digital communications.

Dr. Abd El-Samie was a recipient of the Most Cited Paper Award from the Digital Signal Processing journal in 2008.

Hossam Eldin H. Ahmed received a BSC(Honors) in nuclear engineering in June 1969 (Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt); an MSc in microelectronic electron diffraction in April 1977 (Nuclear Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University); and a PhD in June 1983 (High Institute of Electronic and Optics, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France). From 1970 to 1977, he was in the Egyptian marine forces. He was a demonstrator in 1977, teaching lectures and staff members with the Department of Electronic and Electrical Communications, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Menoufia University. In 1993, he became a professor of microelectronics, VLSI design technology, communication systems, and computer networks. From 1993 until 1999, he was vice dean for education and student affairs at the Faculty of Electronic Engineering. In 2001, he became a chairman of the Electronics and Electrical Communications Department. He is a member of the Menoufia periodic electronic faculty journal and since 1995 has been the director, designer, and constructor of the Menoufia University wide-area network (WAN) (21 LANs). He is the developer of the Menoufia University libraries and FRCU universities libraries. His current research interests are electron microscopy; transmission and backscattering of electrons and ion beams into amorphous or polycrystalline targets; optical fibers; VLSI design; nanotechnology; lithography; digital, optical, and multimedia communications; digital images; multimedia and database communications; security applications; telemetry microcomputer applications in satellites; and OBC and satellite communications.

Ibrahim F. Elashry graduated from the Faculty of Engineering, Kafrelshiekh University, Egypt, in 2007. He is now a teaching assistant and PhD student at the University of Wollongong (UOW), Australia. His research interests are in security over wired and wireless networks and image processing.

Mai H. Shahieen graduated in May 2005 from the Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University. Her 2011 MSc degree is in encrypted image transmission over wireless channels. She is now a PhD student at the Faculty of Electronic Engineering. Her research interests are broadband wireless distribution systems, image and video compression, multimedia systems, and wireless networks.

Osama S. Faragallah
received BSc, MSc, and PhD degrees in computer science and engineering from Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt, in 1997, 2002, and 2007, respectively. He is currently associate professor with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, where he was a demonstrator from 1997 to 2002 and assistant lecturer from 2002 to 2007. Since 2007, he has been a teaching staff member with the same department. His research interests are network security, cryptography, Internet security, multimedia security, image encryption, watermarking, steganography, data hiding, medical image processing, and chaos theory.

El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie (senior member, IEEE 1992, MIEE chartered electrical engineer) was born in Sires Elian (Menoufia), Egypt, in 1953. He received the PhD degree in microwave device engineering from the Queen’s University of Belfast in 1986. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Queen’s (Department of Electronic Engineering) until February 1989. In his doctoral research, he constructed a CAD (computer-aided design) package in nonlinear circuit simulations based on harmonic balance techniques. Since then, he has been involved in different research areas, including CAD of nonlinear microwave circuits, nanotechnology, digital communication systems, and digital image processing. He was invited in 1992 as a Research Fellow at North Arizona University (College of Engineering and Technology) and in 1994 as a visiting professor at Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Professor El-Rabaie has authored and co-authored more than 130 papers and technical reports and 15 books. In 1993, he was awarded the Egyptian Academic Scientific Research Award (Salah Amer Award of Electronics), and in 1995, he received the award of the Best Researcher on CAD from Menoufia University. He acts as a reviewer and member of the editorial board for several scientific journals. He participated in translating the first part of the Arabic encyclopedia. Professor El-Rabaie was the head of the Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering Department, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, and then the vice dean of postgraduate studies and research in the same faculty. He currently is the vice dean of the Scientific Committee for Professors and Assistant Professors promotion in Egypt.

Saleh A. Alshebeili is professor and chairman (2001–2005) of the Electrical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He has more than 20 years of teaching and research experience in the area of communications and signal processing. Dr. Alshebeili is a member of the board of directors of Prince Sultan Advanced Technologies Research Institute (PSATRI) and has been the vice president of PSATRI (2008–2011), the director of Saudi-Telecom Research Chair (2008–2012), and the director (2011–present) of the Technology Innovation Center, RF and Photonics in the e-Society (RFTONICS), funded by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Dr. Alshebeili has been on the editorial board of the Journal of Engineering Sciences of King Saud University (2009–2012). He also has active involvement in the review process of a number of research journals, KACST general directorate grants programs, and national and international symposiums and conferences.