Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Image Encryption

A Communication Perspective, 1st Edition

By Fathi E. Abd El-Samie, Hossam Eldin H. Ahmed, Ibrahim F. Elashry, Mai H. Shahieen, Osama S. Faragallah, El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie, Saleh A. Alshebeili

CRC Press

418 pages | 232 B/W Illus.

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Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches and substitution-based approaches.

Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard, and the RC6 algorithms. It not only details the strength of various encryption algorithms, but also describes their ability to work within the limitations of wireless communication systems.

Since some ciphers were not designed for image encryption, the book explains how to modify these ciphers to work for image encryption. It also provides instruction on how to search for other approaches suitable for this task. To make this work comprehensive, the authors explore communication concepts concentrating on the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system and present a simplified model for the OFDM communication system with its different implementations.

Complete with simulation experiments and MATLAB® codes for most of the simulation experiments, this book will help you gain the understanding required to select the encryption method that best fulfills your application requirements.

Table of Contents


Fundamentals of Image Encryption


Basic Concepts of Cryptography

Goals of Cryptography

Principles of Encryption

Classification of Encryption Algorithms

Classification According to Encryption Structure

Classification According to Keys

Classification According to Percentage of Encrypted Data


Features of Image Encryption Schemes

Conventional Symmetric Block Ciphers

Data Encryption Standard

Double DES

Triple DES

International Data Encryption Algorithm


RC5 Algorithm

RC5 Encryption Algorithm

RC5 Decryption Algorithm

RC5 Key Expansion

RC6 Algorithm

RC6 Encryption Algorithm

RC6 Decryption Algorithm

The Advanced Encryption Standard

Modes of Operation

The ECB Mode

The CBC Mode

The CFB Mode

The OFB Mode

Chaos and Cryptography

The 2D Chaotic Baker Map

Encryption Evaluation Metrics


Encryption Evaluation Metrics

Histogram Deviation

Correlation Coefficient

Irregular Deviation

Histogram Uniformity

Deviation from Ideality

Avalanche Effect


Other Tests

Noise Immunity

The Processing Time

Testing the Evaluation Metrics


Homomorphic Image Encryption


Homomorphic Cryptosystem

Security Analysis and Test Results

Statistical Analysis

Histograms of Encrypted Images

Encryption Quality Measurements

Key Space Analysis

Exhaustive Key Search

Key Sensitivity Test

Differential Analysis

Effect of Noise


Chaotic Image Encryption with Different Modes of Operation


Chaotic Encryption with Modes of Operation

Implementation Issues

Simulation Examples and Discussion


Diffusion Mechanism for Data Encryption in the ECB Mode


The Preprocessing Network

The Addition Part


Implementation Issues

Effect of the Normalized Block Size on Diffusion

Effect of the Normalized Block Size on Block Dependency

Simulation Examples

Encryption Quality


Encryption of Images with Few Details


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing


Basic Principles of OFDM


Frequency Domain Orthogonality

OFDM System Model




Discrete Wavelet Transform

Implementation of the DWT

Haar Wavelet Transform

Guard Interval Insertion

Communication Channels

Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel

Fading Channel

Channel Estimation and Equalization

OFDM Limitations


Analysis of Intercarrier Interference

CFO in FFT-OFDM System Model

CFO in DCT-OFDM System Model

CFO in DWT-OFDM System Model

CFO Compensation

Simulation Parameters

Effect of PAPR

PAPR Reduction Methods

The Clipping Method

The Companding Method

The Hybrid Clipping-and-Companding Method

Simulation Experiments of PAPR Reduction Methods

Sampling Clock Offset

System Model

Simulation Examples

Simulation Parameters

Simulation Experiments in the Presence of CFO

Simulation Experiments for Enhanced Algorithms

Simulation Experiments of PAPR Reduction Methods



Appendix A

Appendix B


About the Authors

Fathi E. Abd El-Samie received the BSc(Honors), MSc, and PhD degrees from Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt, in 1998, 2001, and 2005, respectively. Since 2005, he has been a teaching staff member with the Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University. He is currently a researcher at KACST-TIC in Radio Frequency and Photonics for the e-Society (RFTONICs). He is a co-author of about 200 papers in international conference proceedings and journals and four textbooks. His current research interests include image enhancement, image restoration, image interpolation, superresolution reconstruction of images, data hiding, multimedia communications, medical image processing, optical signal processing, and digital communications.

Dr. Abd El-Samie was a recipient of the Most Cited Paper Award from the Digital Signal Processing journal in 2008.

Hossam Eldin H. Ahmedreceived a BSC(Honors) in nuclear engineering in June 1969 (Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt); an MSc in microelectronic electron diffraction in April 1977 (Nuclear Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University); and a PhD in June 1983 (High Institute of Electronic and Optics, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France). From 1970 to 1977, he was in the Egyptian marine forces. He was a demonstrator in 1977, teaching lectures and staff members with the Department of Electronic and Electrical Communications, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Menoufia University. In 1993, he became a professor of microelectronics, VLSI design technology, communication systems, and computer networks. From 1993 until 1999, he was vice dean for education and student affairs at the Faculty of Electronic Engineering. In 2001, he became a chairman of the Electronics and Electrical Communications Department. He is a member of the Menoufia periodic electronic faculty journal and since 1995 has been the director, designer, and constructor of the Menoufia University wide-area network (WAN) (21 LANs). He is the developer of the Menoufia University libraries and FRCU universities libraries. His current research interests are electron microscopy; transmission and backscattering of electrons and ion beams into amorphous or polycrystalline targets; optical fibers; VLSI design; nanotechnology; lithography; digital, optical, and multimedia communications; digital images; multimedia and database communications; security applications; telemetry microcomputer applications in satellites; and OBC and satellite communications.

Ibrahim F. Elashrygraduated from the Faculty of Engineering, Kafrelshiekh University, Egypt, in 2007. He is now a teaching assistant and PhD student at the University of Wollongong (UOW), Australia. His research interests are in security over wired and wireless networks and image processing.

Mai H. Shahieengraduated in May 2005 from the Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University. Her 2011 MSc degree is in encrypted image transmission over wireless channels. She is now a PhD student at the Faculty of Electronic Engineering. Her research interests are broadband wireless distribution systems, image and video compression, multimedia systems, and wireless networks.

Osama S. Faragallah received BSc, MSc, and PhD degrees in computer science and engineering from Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt, in 1997, 2002, and 2007, respectively. He is currently associate professor with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, where he was a demonstrator from 1997 to 2002 and assistant lecturer from 2002 to 2007. Since 2007, he has been a teaching staff member with the same department. His research interests are network security, cryptography, Internet security, multimedia security, image encryption, watermarking, steganography, data hiding, medical image processing, and chaos theory.

El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie(senior member, IEEE 1992, MIEE chartered electrical engineer) was born in Sires Elian (Menoufia), Egypt, in 1953. He received the PhD degree in microwave device engineering from the Queen’s University of Belfast in 1986. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Queen’s (Department of Electronic Engineering) until February 1989. In his doctoral research, he constructed a CAD (computer-aided design) package in nonlinear circuit simulations based on harmonic balance techniques. Since then, he has been involved in different research areas, including CAD of nonlinear microwave circuits, nanotechnology, digital communication systems, and digital image processing. He was invited in 1992 as a Research Fellow at North Arizona University (College of Engineering and Technology) and in 1994 as a visiting professor at Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Professor El-Rabaie has authored and co-authored more than 130 papers and technical reports and 15 books. In 1993, he was awarded the Egyptian Academic Scientific Research Award (Salah Amer Award of Electronics), and in 1995, he received the award of the Best Researcher on CAD from Menoufia University. He acts as a reviewer and member of the editorial board for several scientific journals. He participated in translating the first part of the Arabic encyclopedia. Professor El-Rabaie was the head of the Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering Department, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, and then the vice dean of postgraduate studies and research in the same faculty. He currently is the vice dean of the Scientific Committee for Professors and Assistant Professors promotion in Egypt.

Saleh A. Alshebeiliis professor and chairman (2001–2005) of the Electrical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He has more than 20 years of teaching and research experience in the area of communications and signal processing. Dr. Alshebeili is a member of the board of directors of Prince Sultan Advanced Technologies Research Institute (PSATRI) and has been the vice president of PSATRI (2008–2011), the director of Saudi-Telecom Research Chair (2008–2012), and the director (2011–present) of the Technology Innovation Center, RF and Photonics in the e-Society (RFTONICS), funded by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Dr. Alshebeili has been on the editorial board of the Journal of Engineering Sciences of King Saud University (2009–2012). He also has active involvement in the review process of a number of research journals, KACST general directorate grants programs, and national and international symposiums and conferences.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Information Technology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications