Imaging Industrial Flows
Applications of Electrical Process Tomography
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The first authoritative account of the industrial potential of tomographic imaging techniques, Imaging Industrial Flows: Applications of Electrical Process Tomography provides an overview of the instrumentation used in process tomography. Assuming only a basic knowledge of instrumentation, electronics, and computing systems, the authors concisely describe the principles behind the operation of image reconstruction techniques and the application of electrical tomography to measuring flows in pipelines and other industrial equipment. This reference will help you improve the efficiency of measurement and control equipment, monitor industrial effluents, and increase the efficiency and safety of process plant equipment, in particular, in the chemical engineering, oil technology, and flow measurement instrumentation industries.
Table of Contents
Preface. List of principal symbols. Why is flow imaging needed?: The problem of flow measurement; The importance of multi-component flow measurement; Terminology; Two-component flow measurement: the basic problem; Conventional methods of two-component flow measurement; Component velocity measurement; Component concentration measurement; Direct mass flow measurement; The flow imaging method of two-component flow measurement; The basic subsystems for flow imaging; The need for a systematic approach to design; Summary. Two-phase fluid dynamics: Introduction; Categories of flow images; Overview of two-phase phenomena; Macroscale flow phenomena; Method for predicting flow regime transition for gas/liquid systems; Microscale structure; Mathematical modelling of two-phase flow; Summary. Sensing techniques: Introduction; Classification of sensors; Measurement for flow imaging; Capacitance sensors - a major case study; Electrical impedance tomography for flow imaging of conducting fluids - an outline; Ultrasonic sensors - an outline; Summary. Image reconstruction: Introduction; Basic principles of image reconstruction; Two-component flow image reconstruction using a two-projection knowledge-based reconstruction algorithm; Reconstruction algorithm - capacitive impedance sensing technique; Reconstruction algorithms - resistive impedance sensing technique; Reconstruction algorithms - ultrasonic flow imaging; Summary. Image display and interpretation: Introduction; The need for image processing; Image presentation; The grey level histogram; Enhancement of an image using filtering techniques; The thresholding technique; Shrinking and expansion techniques; Measurements on objects in the image; Detection of all objects within the image frame; Blurring of images caused by backprojection; Summary. Applications: Introduction; Electrical capacitance tomography - performance parameters; Electrical capacitance tomography for imaging gas/solids flows in pneumatic conveyers; Electrical capacitance tomography for imaging gas flow in fluidized beds; Flow regime identification using electrical capacitance tomography sensing systems; Electrical resistance tomography for measuring transient concentration profiles; Summary. The future: The need for action; The new trends. References. Index.
"… a valuable guide to this exciting new field of process measurement."
-Bob Green, Physics World, October 1995