This book is concerned with the ways in which the problem of security is thought about and promoted by a range of actors and agencies in the public, private and nongovernmental sectors.
The authors are concerned not simply with the influence of risk-based thinking in the area of security, but seek rather to map the mentalities and practices of security found in a variety of sectors, and to understand the ways in which thinking from these sectors influence one another. Their particular concern is to understand the drivers of innovation in the governance of security, the conditions that make innovation possible and the ways in which innovation is imagined and realised by actors from a wide range of sectors.
The book has two key themes: first, governance is now no longer simply shaped by thinking within the state sphere, for thinking originating within the business and community spheres now also shapes governance, and influence one another. Secondly, these developments have implications for the future of democratic values as assumptions about the traditional role of government are increasingly challenged.
The first five chapters of the book explore what has happened to the governance of security, through an analysis of the drivers, conditions and processes of innovation in the context of particular empirical developments. Particular reference is made here to 'waves of change' in security within the Ontario Provincial Police in Canada. In the final chapter the authors examine the implications of 'nodal governance' for democratic values, and then suggest normative directions for deepening democracy in these new circumstances.
Introduction. Imagining security. Imagining governance. Governance through force. Governing through enrolment 1. From state to nodal governance. Introduction. Transformations in state governance. Governing through others: enrolment and alignment. Private governments. Nodal governance. Conclusion 2. Community security and local governance: waves in public policing. Introduction. The place of the police. Waves in public policing. Policing as community-based. Policing as solving problems. The influence of neo-liberalism. Policing as restorative justice. Policing as fixing broken windows. Policing as intelligence work. Policing as reassurance. Conclusion 3. Human security and global governance. Introduction. Imagining human security. Threats to human security. Strategies of human security governance. Fighting crime and terror. Protecting people in zones of conflict. Protecting human rights. Building peace. Developing communities and societies. The state security/human security nexus. Conclusion 4. Responding to governance deficits. Introduction. Methods of power. Concentrate power nodally and use it to steer governance. Recognize and use all your power resources. Focus on nodes where one can be creative and assertive. Concentrate knowledge at nodes. Locate resources at nodes. Promote deliberative processes within nodes. Democracy in nodal governance. Conclusion 5. The governance of governance. Introduction. Hybridity in state governance: the case of public policing. Legal accountability. Political accountability. The new regulatory state or regulatory capitalism. Thinking like a business. Hybridity in decentred governance: private policing and beyond. Nodal governance for the future. Conclusion. Explanatory themes. Normative themes. Legislation Legal cases