Immersed Tunnels  book cover
1st Edition

Immersed Tunnels

ISBN 9780415459860
Published March 21, 2013 by CRC Press
536 Pages 162 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Immersed tunnels have been around for more than a century but remain a relatively unknown form of tunnel construction. For waterway crossings they are an effective alternative to bored tunnels and bridges, particularly in shallower waters, soft alluvial soils, and earthquake-prone areas. Successful implementation requires a thorough understanding of a wide variety of civil engineering disciplines and construction techniques. Immersed Tunnels brings together in one volume all aspects of immersed tunnels from initial feasibility and planning, through design and construction, to operation and maintenance.

Get Valuable Insights into Immersed Tunnel Engineering from Expert Practitioners

The book presents design and construction principles to give a full appreciation not only of what is involved in an immersed tunnel scheme but also how potential problems are dealt with and overcome. It examines important factors that have to be considered, particularly environmental implications and mechanical and electrical systems. It also gives practical examples of how specific techniques have been used in various projects and highlights issues that designers and constructors should be aware of. In addition, the book discusses operation and maintenance and reviews contractual matters. These aspects are described from the viewpoint of two experienced practitioners in the field who have a wealth of experience on immersed tunnel projects worldwide.

As tunnels are increasingly being adopted as engineering solutions around the world, this unique and extensively illustrated reference explores the wide variety of immersed tunnel techniques available to designers and constructors. It provides essential insight for anyone involved, or seeking to be involved, with immersed tunnel projects.

Table of Contents


Development of the Immersed Tunnel

Steel shell tunnels
Concrete tunnels
Composite sandwich tunnels
Tunnels in Japan
Growth in immersed tunnels worldwide

Current Forms of Immersed Tunnel
Monolithic concrete element construction
Segmental concrete element construction
Prestressed concrete
Single steel shell
Double steel shell
Composite concrete steel sandwich

Developing an Immersed Tunnel Scheme
Selection of bridge or tunnel
Tunnel cross section
Junction with cut and cover tunnels
Number of tunnel elements
Structural options
Element construction
Environmental considerations
Disruption to navigation
Operation and maintenance costs
Construction program

Environmental Impact
Short-term versus long-term impacts
Tunnel approaches
Marine works
Water quality
Visual aspects
Air quality

Marine Environment
Hydraulic effects

Mechanical and Electrical Installations
Road tunnel safety
Incident detection and management
Emergency escape
Railway tunnel safety
Control systems
Power supply

Tunnel Approaches and Service Buildings
Forms of approaches
Cut and cover tunnels
Approach ramps
Interface with immersed tunnel
Construction sequence
Connection to bored tunnels
Use of tunnel approaches as the casting basin
Service building facilities
Layout of tunnel portal areas

Design Principles
Structure sizing
Stability and buoyancy
Design loadings
Temporary load conditions
Design codes
Load combinations
Structural analysis
Structural design
Settlement modeling
Seismic design

Immersion joints
Segment joints
Terminal joints
Closure joints
Crown seal joint
Seismic joints

Concrete mix design
Early age crack control
Corrosion prevention strategies
Cathodic protection
Durability of watertight seals
Internal coatings

Foundation layer
Sand foundation layers
Gravel foundation layers
Grouted foundations
Piled foundations
Ground improvement

Cut-and-cover tunnel earthworks
Casting basin
Artificial islands

Construction and Placing of Tunnel Elements
Concrete tunnels
Steel tunnels
Utility tunnels
Temporary works equipment
Float up
Ballast exchange
Lessons learned

Finishing Works
Tunnel entry procedures
Ballast concrete
Fire protection
Cladding, kerbs, and crash barriers
Rail tracks and road surfacing
M&E installation

Operation and Maintenance
Rail tunnels

Contract Forms
Form of contract
Contract documents
Ground conditions
Dispute resolution
Privately financed construction

The Future
Going longer
Going deeper
Submerged floating tunnels


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"… provides an in-depth look at all aspects of this special system used to create underground space beneath waterways. … clear and understandable step-by-step explanation of all the stages in the creation of a tunnel project giving clear descriptions of the various choices and requirements from initial concept through realization and on through operation and maintenance. … The authors use their considerable worldwide expertise and knowledge of the process to give the reader an insight into the possible problems that may occur and should be guarded against, and provide a full picture of all the decisions and processes required to bring a project to a successful conclusion. … the book will provide engineers with a comprehensive library of all aspects of the process ... essential reading for anyone interested in this innovative approach to crossing waterways."
—David Court, C.Eng FICE, Bam Nuttall, UK

"This book is a very good way to bring immersed tunnels into the spotlight in such a way that this tunnel technique will be regarded by decision makers as a competitive option to cross waterways."
—Hans de Wit, Tunnel Engineering Consultants, The Netherlands

"The different aspects of planning and construction of an immersed tunnel are written in a very informative and descriptive way with project examples helping first-time planners, developers and consultants to get an excellent overview. For the more experienced planners, designers and contractors, it gives valuable references to projects and lessons learned."
—Michael Tonnesen, COWI A/S, Denmark

"Highly professional engineering told in an understandable way based on many years’ experience. ... The book will be useful for engineers, clients, and students."
—Ole Peter Jensen, Chief Advisor and Immersed Tunnel Expert, Ramboll, Denmark

"The contents covers all aspects that I would hope to see in a book on the design and construction of immersed tunnels. ... This is an outstanding book that should be read by all engineers that are involved in the design and/or construction of immersed tunnels. Even the most experienced engineers will find nuggets of information that the authors have gleaned through many years implementing immersed tunnel projects around the world. It also provides a good introduction to engineers that are new to this technique with its wide coverage of the subject."
—John Busby, FICE, FIStructE, Operations Director, Capita Symonds Limited, UK

"This is a brilliant introduction and thorough run-through of the complexities of immersed tube tunnels."

 —Lasse Vester in ITA Yong Members Magazine

"... this comprehensive book on all aspects of developing an immersed tunnel project is a very much-needed resource and should be welcomed by planners and designers worldwide. It is written by two fine engineers ... I therefore believe that this book will be found to be a very useful reference for civil engineers in the process of developing an immersed subsea tunnel project for the first time or even for those engineers already experienced in some of the immersed tunnel methods, but who are facing a new project with unusual site conditions or constraints."
—From the Foreword by Walter C. Grantz, PE, immersed tunnel consultant, Virginia Beach, USA