536 Pages 162 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    536 Pages 162 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Immersed tunnels have been around for more than a century but remain a relatively unknown form of tunnel construction. For waterway crossings they are an effective alternative to bored tunnels and bridges, particularly in shallower waters, soft alluvial soils, and earthquake-prone areas. Successful implementation requires a thorough understanding of a wide variety of civil engineering disciplines and construction techniques. Immersed Tunnels brings together in one volume all aspects of immersed tunnels from initial feasibility and planning, through design and construction, to operation and maintenance.

    Get Valuable Insights into Immersed Tunnel Engineering from Expert Practitioners

    The book presents design and construction principles to give a full appreciation not only of what is involved in an immersed tunnel scheme but also how potential problems are dealt with and overcome. It examines important factors that have to be considered, particularly environmental implications and mechanical and electrical systems. It also gives practical examples of how specific techniques have been used in various projects and highlights issues that designers and constructors should be aware of. In addition, the book discusses operation and maintenance and reviews contractual matters. These aspects are described from the viewpoint of two experienced practitioners in the field who have a wealth of experience on immersed tunnel projects worldwide.

    As tunnels are increasingly being adopted as engineering solutions around the world, this unique and extensively illustrated reference explores the wide variety of immersed tunnel techniques available to designers and constructors. It provides essential insight for anyone involved, or seeking to be involved, with immersed tunnel projects.


    Development of the Immersed Tunnel

    Steel shell tunnels
    Concrete tunnels
    Composite sandwich tunnels
    Tunnels in Japan
    Growth in immersed tunnels worldwide

    Current Forms of Immersed Tunnel
    Monolithic concrete element construction
    Segmental concrete element construction
    Prestressed concrete
    Single steel shell
    Double steel shell
    Composite concrete steel sandwich

    Developing an Immersed Tunnel Scheme
    Selection of bridge or tunnel
    Tunnel cross section
    Junction with cut and cover tunnels
    Number of tunnel elements
    Structural options
    Element construction
    Environmental considerations
    Disruption to navigation
    Operation and maintenance costs
    Construction program

    Environmental Impact
    Short-term versus long-term impacts
    Tunnel approaches
    Marine works
    Water quality
    Visual aspects
    Air quality

    Marine Environment
    Hydraulic effects

    Mechanical and Electrical Installations
    Road tunnel safety
    Incident detection and management
    Emergency escape
    Railway tunnel safety
    Control systems
    Power supply

    Tunnel Approaches and Service Buildings
    Forms of approaches
    Cut and cover tunnels
    Approach ramps
    Interface with immersed tunnel
    Construction sequence
    Connection to bored tunnels
    Use of tunnel approaches as the casting basin
    Service building facilities
    Layout of tunnel portal areas

    Design Principles
    Structure sizing
    Stability and buoyancy
    Design loadings
    Temporary load conditions
    Design codes
    Load combinations
    Structural analysis
    Structural design
    Settlement modeling
    Seismic design

    Immersion joints
    Segment joints
    Terminal joints
    Closure joints
    Crown seal joint
    Seismic joints

    Concrete mix design
    Early age crack control
    Corrosion prevention strategies
    Cathodic protection
    Durability of watertight seals
    Internal coatings

    Foundation layer
    Sand foundation layers
    Gravel foundation layers
    Grouted foundations
    Piled foundations
    Ground improvement

    Cut-and-cover tunnel earthworks
    Casting basin
    Artificial islands

    Construction and Placing of Tunnel Elements
    Concrete tunnels
    Steel tunnels
    Utility tunnels
    Temporary works equipment
    Float up
    Ballast exchange
    Lessons learned

    Finishing Works
    Tunnel entry procedures
    Ballast concrete
    Fire protection
    Cladding, kerbs, and crash barriers
    Rail tracks and road surfacing
    M&E installation

    Operation and Maintenance
    Rail tunnels

    Contract Forms
    Form of contract
    Contract documents
    Ground conditions
    Dispute resolution
    Privately financed construction

    The Future
    Going longer
    Going deeper
    Submerged floating tunnels



    Richard Lunniss is director of civil engineering at Capita Symonds.

    Jonathan Baber is a project director at Mott MacDonald and vice animateur of the International Tunnelling Association Working Group for Immersed and Floating Tunnels.

    Lunniss and Baber have been extensively involved, over 25- and 20-year periods respectively, in the design and construction of immersed tunnels worldwide. Their completed schemes include:

    • Conwy Tunnel (UK)
    • Medway Tunnel (UK)
    • Jack Lynch Tunnel (Cork, Ireland)
    • Airport Railway Tunnel (Hong Kong)
    • Preveza Tunnel (Greece)
    • Øresund Tunnel (Copenhagen, Denmark)
    • Fort Point Channel Tunnel (Boston, USA)
    • Bjørvika Tunnel (Oslo, Norway)
    • Limerick Tunnel (Ireland)

    They have also undertaken feasibility and tender designs for several other immersed tunnel projects, and given advice to funders on PFI schemes.

    "… provides an in-depth look at all aspects of this special system used to create underground space beneath waterways. … clear and understandable step-by-step explanation of all the stages in the creation of a tunnel project giving clear descriptions of the various choices and requirements from initial concept through realization and on through operation and maintenance. … The authors use their considerable worldwide expertise and knowledge of the process to give the reader an insight into the possible problems that may occur and should be guarded against, and provide a full picture of all the decisions and processes required to bring a project to a successful conclusion. … the book will provide engineers with a comprehensive library of all aspects of the process ... essential reading for anyone interested in this innovative approach to crossing waterways."
    —David Court, C.Eng FICE, Bam Nuttall, UK

    "This book is a very good way to bring immersed tunnels into the spotlight in such a way that this tunnel technique will be regarded by decision makers as a competitive option to cross waterways."
    —Hans de Wit, Tunnel Engineering Consultants, The Netherlands

    "The different aspects of planning and construction of an immersed tunnel are written in a very informative and descriptive way with project examples helping first-time planners, developers and consultants to get an excellent overview. For the more experienced planners, designers and contractors, it gives valuable references to projects and lessons learned."
    —Michael Tonnesen, COWI A/S, Denmark

    "Highly professional engineering told in an understandable way based on many years’ experience. ... The book will be useful for engineers, clients, and students."
    —Ole Peter Jensen, Chief Advisor and Immersed Tunnel Expert, Ramboll, Denmark

    "The contents covers all aspects that I would hope to see in a book on the design and construction of immersed tunnels. ... This is an outstanding book that should be read by all engineers that are involved in the design and/or construction of immersed tunnels. Even the most experienced engineers will find nuggets of information that the authors have gleaned through many years implementing immersed tunnel projects around the world. It also provides a good introduction to engineers that are new to this technique with its wide coverage of the subject."
    —John Busby, FICE, FIStructE, Operations Director, Capita Symonds Limited, UK

    "This is a brilliant introduction and thorough run-through of the complexities of immersed tube tunnels."

     —Lasse Vester in ITA Yong Members Magazine

    "... this comprehensive book on all aspects of developing an immersed tunnel project is a very much-needed resource and should be welcomed by planners and designers worldwide. It is written by two fine engineers ... I therefore believe that this book will be found to be a very useful reference for civil engineers in the process of developing an immersed subsea tunnel project for the first time or even for those engineers already experienced in some of the immersed tunnel methods, but who are facing a new project with unusual site conditions or constraints."
    —From the Foreword by Walter C. Grantz, PE, immersed tunnel consultant, Virginia Beach, USA