1st Edition

Impeccability and Temptation Understanding Christ’s Divine and Human Will

Edited By Johannes Grössl, Klaus von Stosch Copyright 2021
    328 Pages 2 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    328 Pages 2 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    In Christian theology, the teaching that Christ possessed both a human and divine will is central to the doctrine of two natures, but it also represents a logical paradox, raising questions about how a person can be both impeccable and subject to temptation. This volume explores these questions through an analytic theology approach, bringing together 15 original papers that explore the implications of a strong libertarian concept of free will for Christology. With perspectives from systematic theologians, philosophers, and biblical scholars, several chapters also offer a comparative theology approach, examining the concept of impeccability in the Muslim tradition.

    Therefore, this volume will be of interest to scholars and graduate students working in analytic theology, biblical scholarship, systematic theology, and Christian-Islamic dialogue.

    Part I Was Christ Sinless? Exegetical and Historical Approaches

    1 The Sinlessness of Christ and Human Perfection

    Jeffrey Siker

    2 Sinless or Not? The Baptism by John and Jesus’ Consciousness of his Personal Sins

    Angelika Strotmann

    3 "He Himself Was Tempted" (Hebr 2:18): The Temptation of Jesus in the New Testament

    Lena Lutticke and Hans-Ulrich Weidemann

    4 God’s Work and Human’s Contribution: Jesus’ Sinlessness in Theodore of Mopsuestia’s Christology

    Cornelia Dockter

    5 Conciliar Christology, Impeccability, and Temptation

    Timothy Pawl

    Part II Is Christ Impeccable? Systematical Approaches

    6 Seven Questions Ingredient to Jesus Christ’s Temptation

    John E. Mckinley

    7 The Hypostatic Union and the Freedom of Christ

    Thomas Schartl

    8 Classical Theism, Christology, and the Two Sons Worry

    R.T. Mullins

    9 Peccable as Son of Man, Impeccable as Son of God: An Attempt to Reconcile Freedom and Impeccability

    Dominikus Kraschl

    10 The Divine and Human Will of Christ

    Oliver D. Crisp

    11 Deification and the Divided-Consciousness-View

    Johannes Grossl

    Part III Human Perfection and Sinlessness in Islamic Theology

    12 The Scope of ‘Iṣma and Qur’anic Evidence

    Mohammad Haghani Fazl

    13 Inerrancy and Exaggeration in Shi‘I Theology

    Muhammad Legenhausen

    14 The Theological Concept of Imamate: How Imamis Reconcile Human Perfection and Free Will

    Vahid Mahdavi Mehr


    Johannes Grössl is Assistant Professor for Fundamental Theology and Comparative Studies of Religion at the University of Würzburg, Germany. He has published in Faith and Philosophy and Theology and Science and co-edited a volume of German translations of essays on divine foreknowledge and human freedom, Göttliche Allwissenheit und Menschliche Freiheit, 2015.

    Klaus von Stosch is Professor for Systematic Theology at te University of Paderborn, Germany. He is an internationally well-known expert in comparative theology, having published 11 monographs and 40 edited books, among them, together with Francis Clooney, How to do Comparative Theology? He has held guest professorships in Jerusalem and research fellowships at the University of Qom (Iran), Harvard Divinity School, and Georgetown University.