Impeccability and Temptation
Understanding Christ’s Divine and Human Will
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In Christian theology, the teaching that Christ possessed both a human and divine will is central to the doctrine of two natures, but it also represents a logical paradox, raising questions about how a person can be both impeccable and subject to temptation. This volume explores these questions through an analytic theology approach, bringing together fifteen original articles that explore the implications of a strong libertarian concept of free will for Christology. With perspectives from systematic theologians, philosophers, and biblical scholars, several chapters also offer a comparative theology approach, examining the concept of impeccability in the Muslim tradition.
Therefore, this volume will be of interest to scholars and graduate students working in analytic theology, biblical scholarship, systematic theology and Christian-Islamic dialogue.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Impeccability and Temptation
Part I: Was Christ Sinless? Exegetical and Historical Approaches
1 The Sinlessness of Christ and Human Perfection
2 Sinless or not? The Baptism by John and Jesus’ Consciousness of his Personal Sins
3 "He himself was tempted" (Hebr 2:18) – The Temptation of Jesus in the New Testament
Lena Lütticke and Hans-Ulrich Weidemann
4 God’s Work and Human’s Contribution – Jesus’ Sinlessness in Theodore of Mopsuestia’s Christology
5 Conciliar Christology, Impeccability, and Temptation
Part II: Is Christ Impeccable? Systematical Approaches
6 Seven Questions Ingredient to Christ's Impeccability and Temptation
7 Hypostatic Union and the Freedom of Christ
8 Classical Theism, Christology, and the Two Sons Worry
9 Peccable as Son of Man, Impeccable as Son of God – An Attempt to Reconcile Freedom and Impeccability
10 The Divine and Human Will of Christ
11 Deification and the Divided-Consciousness-View
Part III: Human Perfection and Sinlessness in Islamic Theology
12 The Scope of ‘Iṣma and Qur’anic Evidence
Mohammad Haghani Fazl
13 Inerrancy and Exaggeration in Shi'i Theology
14 The Theological Concept of Imamate – How Islam Reconciles Human Perfection and Free Will
Vahid Mahdavi Mehr
Conclusion: Impeccability and Sinlessness in Islam and Christianity
Klaus von Stosch
Johannes Grössl is Assistant Professor for fundamental theology and comparative religion at University of Würzburg, Germany. He has published in Faith and Philosophy and Theology and Science and co-edited a volume with German translations of essays on divine foreknowledge and human freedom (Göttliche Allwissenheit und Menschliche Freiheit, Kohlhammer 2015).
Klaus von Stosch is Professor for Systematic Theology at University of Paderborn, Germany. He is an internationally well-known expert for comparative theology, having published 11 monographs and 40 edited books, among them, together with Francis Clooney, How to do Comparative Theology? He has held guest professorships at Jerusalem and research fellowships at Qom University (Iran), Harvard Divinity School and Georgetown University.