1st Edition

Imperialism and China 1800-1945 CC 4V

Edited By

Ralph Huenemann

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ISBN 9781138814349
Published May 19, 2016 by Routledge
1570 Pages


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Book Description

The history of imperialism in China is a complex, contentious history. In modern times, China’s experience with imperialism has entailed two parallel stories during the 19th and 20th centuries—stories that are different in their geographic location, in their motivations, and in their outcomes. The facet of imperialism that has received the most attention is that of aggression against China by capitalist nations, culminating in the Japanese invasion of the 1930s. This story evolved in a low-key way before the 19th century, but then entered a more aggressive phase with military action by the British in the First Opium War (1839-1842). Both economic issues and cultural issues have received attention in this story, and are thoroughly explored in two volumes of this Major Work.

The simultaneous story of Qing Imperialism in Eurasia (stretching from Tibet through Central Asia and Mongolia around to Korea), as explored in the third volume, entailed a multilateral rivalry, with China, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan jockeying for position. Again, the origins lay well before the 19th century, and again significant military action was important—in this case, led primarily by the Han (Chinese) official Zuo Zongtang on behalf of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty. An important aspect of this second story is that the territories in dispute were inhabited by non-Han peoples. For the most part, Chinese writings do not treat this episode as an example of imperialism, much as American history books do not generally treat the incorporation of the swath of Mexican territory from Texas to California into the United States as an act of imperialism. This reference work gathers together in one place a multitude of academic sources on the history of imperialism and China, providing an essential overview of the many sides of the topic.

Table of Contents

Volume I





1. Hu Sheng, ‘Establishment of New Relationships (1840-1864)’, in Imperialism and Chinese Politics (Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1955), pp. 7-54.

2. Wang Dong, ‘Tracing the Contours of the Unequal Treaties in Imperial China, 1840-1911’, in China's Unequal Treaties: Narrating National History (Lanham MD: Lexington Books, 2005), pp. 9-34.

3. Mark C. Elliott, ‘Introduction: The Problem with the Manchus’, in The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 2001), pp. 1-35.

4. Prasenjit Duara, ‘Introduction’, in Rescuing History from the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press), pp. 3-16.

5. S. C. M. Paine, extract from ‘The Cultural Dimensions of the Sino-Japanese War’, in The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Perceptions, Power, and Primacy (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 333-339, 357-366.

6. Zheng Wang, extract from ‘National Humiliation, History Education, and the Politics of Historical Memory: Patriotic Education Campaign in China’, International Studies Quarterly 52, 4, 2008, 788-794, 799-805.

7. William H. Callahan, ‘National Insecurities: Humiliation, Salvation, and Chinese Nationalism’, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 29, 2, 2004, 199-218.

8. Pär Kristoffer Cassel, ‘Codifying Extraterritoriality: The Chinese "Unequal Treaties"’, in Grounds of Judgment: Extraterritoriality and Imperial Power in Nineteenth-Century China and Japan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 39-62.

9. Turan Kayaoğlu, ‘Positive Law and Sovereignty’, in Legal Imperialism: Sovereignty and Extraterritoriality in Japan, the Ottoman Empire, and China (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 17-39.

10. Daniel H. Bays, ‘Protestant Beginnings, Catholics Redux, and China’s First Indigenous Christians, 1800-1860’, in A New History of Christianity in China (London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), pp. 41-61.

11. Kuang-sheng Liao, ‘The Anti-Missionary Movements and Antiforeignism, 1860-1900’, in Antiforeignism and Modernization in China, 1860-1980: Linkage between Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press and New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984), pp. 39-51.

12. Paul A. Cohen, extract from ‘Christianity as Heterodoxy’, in China and Christianity: The Missionary Movement and the Growth of Chinese Antiforeignism 1860-1870 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963), pp. 43-47, 48-52, 58-60.

13. Paul A. Cohen, ‘Boxers, Christians and the Gods: The Boxer Conflict of 1900 as a Religious War’, in China Unbound: Evolving Perspectives on the Chinese Past (London and New York: Routledge, 2003), pp. 105-125.

14. Connie Shemo, ‘Directions in Scholarship on American Women and Protestant Foreign Mission: Debates over "Cultural Imperialism", History Compass 10, 3, 2012, 270-283.

15. Motoe Sasaki, ‘American New Women Encountering China: The Politics of Temporality and Paradoxes of Imperialism, 1898-1927’, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 10, 1, 2009, 1-14.

16. Robert Bickers, ‘Boundary Maintenance’, extract from Britain in China: Community, Culture and Colonialism 1900-1949 (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1999), pp. 95-104.

17. Eric T.L. Love, extract from ‘Hawaii Annexed’, in Race over Empire: Racism and U.S. Imperialism, 1865-1900 (Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004), pp. 148-156.

18. W. Somerset Maugham, extracts from On a Chinese Screen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), pp. 57-59, 131-133, 144-146, and 211-213.

19. Robert Bickers, ‘Adrift in the Empire World’, Empire Made Me: An Englishman Adrift in Shanghai (London: Penguin Books, 2003), pp. 223-233 and 239-240.

20. Han Suyin, Extract from The Crippled Tree (St. Albans UK: Panther Publishing, 1972), pp. 181-190.


Volume II



21. Mao Tse-tung, ‘Present-Day Colonial, Semi-Colonial and Semi-Feudal Society’, in Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, Vol. II (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1967), pp. 309-314.

22. Lin Tse-hsü, ‘Lin Tse-hsü’s Moral Advice to Queen Victoria, 1839’, in Ssu-yu Teng, John K. Fairbank, China's Response to the West: A Documentary Survey 1839-1923 (New York: Atheneum, 1965), pp. 24-27.

23. D.K. Fieldhouse, ‘Europeans in China’, in Economics and Empire 1830-1914 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973), pp. 210-223.

24. Stanley F. Wright, ‘Introduction: The Unique Character of the Chinese Customs Service’, in Hart and the Chinese Customs (Belfast: Wm. Mullan and Son, 1950), pp. 1-8.

25. Yen-p'ing Hao, ‘Conclusion: Significance of the Comprador as a Middleman between East and West’, in The Comprador in Nineteenth Century China: Bridge between East and West (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1970, pp. 207-223.

26. Loren Brandt, Debin Ma and Thomas G. Rawski, ‘Turbulent Century: China Confronts the Industrial Revolution, 1840-1939’, extract from ‘From Divergence to Convergence: Reevaluating the History behind China’s Economic Boom’, Journal of Economic Literature 52, 1, 2014, 80-92.

27. Tim Wright, ‘Imperialism and the Chinese Economy: A Methodological Critique of the Debate’, Bulletin of the Concerned Asian Scholars 18, 1986, 36-45.

28. Ralph W. Huenemann, ‘The Policy Conundrum’, in The Dragon and the Iron Horse: The Economics of Railroads in China, 1876-1937 (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1984), pp. 1-36.

29. Jürgen Osterhammel, ‘Semi-Colonialism and Informal Empire in 20th-Century China: Towards a Framework of Analysis’, in Wolfgang J Mommsen and Jürgen Osterhammel (eds), Imperialism and After: Continuities and Discontinuities (London: Allen & Unwin, 1986), pp. 290-314.

30. Hou Chi-ming, ‘Introduction, A Dualistic Economy, and Summary and Conclusion’, in Foreign Investment and Economic Development in China 1840-1937 (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1965), pp. 1-6, 165-188 and 211-222.

31. Victor D. Lippit, ‘The Development of Underdevelopment in China’, Modern China 4, 3, 1978, 299-323.

32. Keith Griffin, ‘The Roots of Underdevelopment: Reflections on the Chinese Experience’, Modern China 4, 3, 1978, 351-357.

33. Carl Riskin, Discussion and Comments on Underdevelopment, Modern China 4, 3, 1978, 359-376.

34. Sherman Cochran, ‘Conclusion: Imperialism, Nationalism and Entrepreneurship’, in Big Business in China: Sino-Foreign Rivalry in the Cigarette Industry, 1890-1930 (Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 1980), pp. 201-220.

35. Roberta Allbert Dayer, ‘Introduction’, in Bankers and Diplomats in China 1917-1925: The Anglo-American Relationship (London: Frank Cass, 1981), pp. xiii-xxvii.

36. Albert Feuerwerker, ‘Handicraft and Manufactured Cotton Textiles in China, 1871-1910’, The Journal of Economic History 30, 2, 1970, 338-378.

37. Lillian M. Li, ‘Conclusion’, in China’s Silk Trade: Traditional Industry in the Modern World, 1842-1937 (Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University Press), 1981, pp. 197-206.

38. Robert Y. Eng, Extracts from Economic Imperialism in China: Silk Production and Exports, 1861-1932 (Berkeley CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1986), pp. 4-16 and 181-196.

39. Alvin Y. So, ‘Conclusion’, in The South China Silk District: Local Historical Transformation and World-System Theory (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986), pp. 155-164.


Volume III



40. Barbara Emerson, ‘The Celestial Empire’, in Leopold II of the Belgians: King of Colonialism (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1979), pp. 215-231.

41. Lloyd E. Eastman, ‘France in Vietnam and China’s Initial Responses’, in Throne and Mandarins: China's Search for a Policyduring the Sino-French Controversy 1880-1885 (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1967), pp. 30-44.

42. Robert Lee, ‘France and China in the Nineteenth Century’, in France and the Exploitation of China, 1885-1901: A Study of Economic Imperialism (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1989), pp. 1-25.

43. D. Gagnier, ‘French Loans to China 1895-1914: The Alliance of International Finance and Diplomacy’, Australian Journal of Politics and History 18, 2, 1972, 229-249.

44. John E. Schrecker, ‘The Acquisition of the German Sphere of Influence’, in Imperialism and Chinese Nationalism: Germany in Shantung (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1971), pp. 1-42.

45. Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingfürst, ‘Chancellor von Hohenlohe Advises Wilhelm II to Take His Share of China, 1895’, in Louis L. Snyder (ed.), The Imperialism Reader: Documents and Readings on Modern Expansionism (Port Washington NY: Kennikat Press, 1973). pp. 297-303.

46. Kaiser Wilhelm II, ‘Wilhelm II Calls for Use of Mailed Fist, 1897’, in Louis L. Snyder (ed.), The Imperialism Reader: Documents and Readings on Modern Expansionism (Port Washington NY: Kennikat Press, 1973). pp. 301-303.

47. Robert Bickers, ‘Unwelcome Guests’, in The Scramble for China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914 (Colchester UK: Allen Lane, 2011), pp. 18-50.

48. Katherine F. Bruner, John K. Fairbank and Richard J. Smith, ‘Epilogue: The Impact of Robert Hart’s Administration’, in Entering China's Service: Robert Hart's Journals, 1854-1863 (Cambridge and London: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University Press, 1986), pp. 319-338.

49. Peter Duss, ‘Japan’s Informal Empire in China, 1895-1937: An Overview’, in Peter Duus, Ramon H. Myers and Mark R. Peattie (eds), The Japanese Informal Empire in China, 1895-1937 (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989), pp. xi-xxviii.

50. Timothy Brook, ‘The Family Letters of Dr Robert Wilson’ and ‘Judgement of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East’, excerpts from Timothy Brook (ed.), Documents on the Rape of Nanking (Ann Arbor MI: University of Michigan Press, 1999), pp. 212-220 and 257-261.

51. Peipei Qiu, ‘Japan’s Aggressive War and the Military "Comfort Women" System’ and ‘The MASS Abduction of Chinese Women’, in Qiu Peipei, with Su Zhiliang and Chen Lifei, Chinese Comfort Women: Testimonies from Imperial Japan's Sex Slaves (Vancouver and Toronto: UBC Press, 2013), pp. 21-49.

52. Mark Bassin , ‘Introduction’ in Imperial Visions: Nationalist Imagination and Geographical Expansion in the Russian Far East, 1840-1865 (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 1-15.

53. Immanuel C.Y. Hsü, ‘Introduction’ in The Ili Crisis: A Study of Sino-Russian Diplomacy 1871-1881 (Oxford UK: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1965), pp. 1-15.

54. George Alexander Lensen, ‘The Policy of Russia in East Asia’, in Balance of Intrigue: International Rivalry in Korea and Manchuria, 1884-1899 (Tallahassee FL: University Presses of Florida, 1982), pp. 835-854.

55. Peter S. H.Tang, ‘The Origin of the Chinese Eastern Railway’, in Russian and Soviet Policy in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia 1911-1931 (Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1959, pp. 35-51.

56. Warren I. Cohen, ‘The Development of the Treaty System’, in America's Response to China: A History of Sino-American Relations, 5th ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010), pp. 8-28.

57. Jacques M. Downs, ‘American Merchants and the China Opium Trade, 1800-1840’, The Business History Review 42.4, 1968, 418-442.

58. David L. Anderson, ‘Imperialism and Idealism: America’s China Policy Dilemma’, in Imperialism and Idealism: American Diplomats in China, 1861-1898 (Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press, 1985), pp. 1-15.

59. U.S. Department of State, ‘Open-Door Policy in China, 1899-1900’, in Louis L. Snyder (ed.) The Imperialism Reader: Documents and Readings on Modern Expansionism (Port Washington NY: Kennikat Press, 1973), pp. 307-313.

60. Marilyn Blatt Young, ‘Conclusion’, in The Rhetoric of Empire: American China Policy, 1895-1901 (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1968), pp. 219-231.



Volume IV



61. Michael Clarke, extract from ‘The "Centrality" of Central Asia in World History, 1700-2008: From Pivot to Periphery and Back Again?’, in Colin Mackerras and Michael Clarke (eds), China, Xinjiang, and Central Asia: History, Transition and Crossborder Interaction into the 21st Century (London and New York: Routledge, 2009), pp. 30-38.

62. Joanna Waley-Cohen, ‘Religion, War, and Empire-Building in 18th Century China’, The International History Review XX, 2, 1998, 336-352.

63. Kwang-ching Liu, extract from ‘The Military Challenge: The North-West and the Coast’, in John K. Fairbank and Kwang-ching Liu (eds), The Cambridge History of China: Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911, Vol. 11, Part 2 (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 1980), pp. 211-243.

64. Sun Yat-Sen, ‘Lectures One, Two and Three on the Three Principles of the People’, in San Min Chu I: The Three Principles of the People (Taipei, Taiwan: China Publishing Company, 1970), pp. 1-20.

65. So Wai Chor, ‘National Identity, Nation and Race: Wang Jingwei’s Early Revolutionary Ideas, 1905-1911’, Journal of Modern Chinese History 4, 1, 2010, 57-80.

66. Chiang Kai-shek, extract from ‘Growth and Development of the Chinese Nation’, in China's Destiny and Chinese Economic Theory, with Notes and Commentary by Philip Jaffe (London UK: Dennis Dobson Ltd., 1947), pp. 29-35.

67. Mao Tsetung,’ The Relationship between the Han Nationality and the Minority Nationalities’, in On the Ten Major Relationshps (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1997), pp. 16-18.

68. Ma Rong, ‘A New Perspective in Guiding Ethnic Relations in the 21st Century: "De-Politicization" of Ethnicity in China’, in Asian Ethnicity 8, 3, 2007, 199-217.

69. Zhang Weiwei, ‘The Rise of a Civilizational State’, in The China Wave: Rise of a Civilizational State (Hackensack, HJ: World Century Publishing, 2012), pp. 47-67.

70. Zhao Suisheng, ‘The Challenge of Ethnic Nationalism: Self-Determination versus the Unitary Chinese Nation-State’, in A Nation-State by Construction: Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 2004), pp. 165-179.

71. Pan Guangdan, ‘Critical Reflections on Our Historical Ultranationalism’, in Minzu yanjiu wenji (Beijing: Minzu chubanshe, 1995), pp. 146-149. Translated by Ralph W. Huenemann, assisted by Hua Lin, Alex Kangdi Peng, Yan Shen and Linda Shi.

72. Prasenjit Duara, ‘Imperial Nationalism and the Frontier’, in Sovereignty and Authenticity: Manchukuo and the East Asian Modern (Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003), pp. 179-201.

73. James Leibold, ‘Introduction’, in Reconfiguring Chinese Nationalism: How the Qing Frontier and Its Indigenes Became Chinese (London, UK and New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 1-16.

74. Edward N. Luttwak, ‘Strategic Competence: The Historical Record’, in The Rise of China vs. the Logic of Strategy (Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012), pp. 89-94.

75. Peter C. Perdue, ‘Embracing Victory, Effacing Defeat: Rewriting the Qing Frontier Campaigns’, in Diana Lary (ed.), The Chinese State at the Borders (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2007), pp. 105-125.

76. Alexander Woodside, ‘The Centre and the Borderlands of Chinese Political Theory’, in Diana Lary (ed.), The Chinese State at the Borders (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2007), pp. 11-28.

77. James A. Millward, ‘Introduction’, in Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1998), pp. 1-19.

78. Jonathan N. Lipman, ‘Hyphenated Chinese: Sino-Muslim Identity in Modern China’, in Gail Hershatter, Emily Honig, Jonathan Lipman and Randall Stross (eds), Remapping China: Fissures in Historical Terrain (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1996, pp. 97-112.

79. Sean R. Roberts, ‘Imagining Uyghurstan: Re-Evaluating the Birth of the Modern Uyghur Nation’, Central Asian Survey 28, 4, 2009, 361-381.

80. Gavin Hambly, et al., ‘Lamaistic Civilization in Tibet and Mongolia’, in Gavin Hambly, with Alexandre Bennigsen, David Bivar, Hélène Carrère d'Encausse, Mahin Hajianpur, Alastair Lamb, Chantal Lemercier-Qulequejay and Richard Pierce, Central Asia (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969), pp. 243-275.

81. Gavin Hambly, et al., ‘Tibet and Great Power Rivalry’, in Gavin Hambly, with Alexandre Bennigsen, David Bivar, Hélène Carrère d'Encausse, Mahin Hajianpur, Alastair Lamb, Chantal Lemercier-Qulequejay and Richard Pierce, Central Asia (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969), pp. 243-275.

82. John Powers, ‘Old Tibet: A Clash of Myths’, in History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the Pople's Republic of China (Oxford UK: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 3-27.

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