1st Edition

Implementation Science The Key Concepts

    270 Pages 39 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    270 Pages 39 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This accessible textbook introduces a wide spectrum of ideas, approaches, and examples that make up the emerging field of implementation science, including implementation theory, processes and methods, data collection and analysis, brokering interest on the ground, and sustainable implementation.

    Containing over 60 concise essays, each addressing the thorny problem of how we can make care more evidence-informed, this book looks at how implementation science should be defined, how it can be conducted, and how it is assessed. It offers vital insight into how research findings that are derived from healthcare contexts can help make sense of service delivery and patient encounters. Each entry concentrates on an important concept and examines the idea’s evidence base, root causes and effects, ideas and applications, and methodologies and methods. Revealing a very human side to caregiving, but also tackling its more complex and technological aspects, the contributors draw on real-life healthcare examples to look both at why things go right in introducing a new intervention and at what can go wrong. Implementation Science: The Key Concepts provides a toolbox of rich, contemporary thought from leading international thinkers, clearly and succinctly delivered.

    This comprehensive and enlightening range of ideas and examples brought together in one place is essential reading for all students, researchers, and practitioners with an interest in translating knowledge into practice in healthcare.

    Part I Principles and Concepts of Implementation Science

    1 Complexity Science

    Jeffrey Braithwaite

    2 Taking a Systems View

    Moriah E. Ellen and Saritte Perlman

    3 Resilience Changes the Lens for Healthcare Implementation Systems

    David D. Woods and Michael F. Rayo

    4 Implementation Systems that Support Resilient Performance

    Michael F. Rayo

    5 Principles of Implementation Science

    Amy M. Kilbourne

    6 Medical Humanism: The Role of Character in Implementation Science

    Mark Clark

    7 Theorizing

    Roman Kislov and Paul Wilson

    8 Theories, Models, and Frameworks in Implementation Science: A Taxonomy

    Per Nilsen

    9 The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)

    Laura Damschroder

    10 The Theoretical Domains Framework

    Fabiana Lorencatto

    11 Organization Theory for Implementation Science

    Sarah A. Birken and Emily R. Haines

    12 Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) Framework

    Joanna C. Moullin and Gregory A. Aarons

    13 Implementation Science as Process Ecology: Normalization Process Theory

    Carl May

    14 Diffusion of Innovation Theory

    Ping Yu

    15 Health-related Quality of Life

    Ben Smith and Ivana Durcinoska

    16 Shared Decision-Making: Consider Context

    Glyn Elwyn

    17 Core Aspects of Nudge as a Behaviour Change Paradigm in Implementation Science

    Klay Lamprell

    18 Pipeline and Cyclical Models of Evidence Building: The Roles of Implementation Research

    Carolyn J. Hill and Virginia Knox

    Part II Methodology and Methods of Implementation Science

    19 Application

    Nick Sevdalis and Louise Hull

    20 Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA)

    Jeffrey Braithwaite

    21 Formative Evaluation Feedback Loops

    Jeffrey Braithwaite

    22 Implementation or Continuous Design? The Contribution of Human Factors and Engineering to Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety

    Pascale Carayon

    23 Core and Variation Components

    Terje Ogden

    24 Sensemaking: Appreciating Patterns and Coherence in Complexity

    David C. Aron and Luci K. Leykum

    25 Methodological Diversity

    Frances Rapport and Yvonne Zurynski

    26 Applying the Theoretical Domains Framework: Its Uses and Limitations

    Fabiana Lorencatto

    27 Ethnography

    Justin Waring and Jenelle Clarke

    28 Walking Methods

    Frances Rapport

    29 Modelling Complex Socio-Technical Systems: The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM)

    Erik Hollnagel and Robyn Clay-Williams

    30 Getting a handle on the social processes of implementation: Social network research

    Janet C. Long

    31 Sentiment Analysis for Use within Rapid Implementation Research: How Far and Fast Can We Go?

    James Smith

    32 Mixed Methods Design

    Lawrence A. Palinkas

    33 Simulation to Improve Patient Care

    Mary D. Patterson and Ellen S. Deutsch

    34 In Situ Simulation

    Kyota Nakamura and Kazue Nakajima

    35 Emergency Implementation Science

    John Øvretveit

    36 Planning for Implementation: Why, Who, and How

    Andrea Smith and Karen Hutchinson

    37 Consensus Building: A Key Concept in Implementation Science

    Lawrence Susskind

    38 Nudge: Finding Clues and Using Cues to Shift Clinician Behaviour

    Klay Lamprell

    39 Design and Implementation of Dashboards in Healthcare

    Kristiana Ludlow and Johanna Westbrook

    40 Sensemaking: Paying Attention to the Stories We Tell to Improve Our Ability to Act

    Luci K. Leykum and David C. Aron

    41 Adaptations

    Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz, Henna Hasson, and Gregory A. Aarons

    Part III Challenges with Evidence into Practice: Translation, Evaluation, Sustainability

    42 Evidence Synthesis: Maximizing the Potential

    Jo Rycroft-Malone

    43 Theory-driven Evaluation

    Huey T. Chen

    44 Process Evaluation of Implementation Strategies

    Michel Wensing

    45 Dissemination

    David Chambers

    46 A Learning Perspective on Implementation

    Per Nilsen, Margit Neher, Per-Erik Ellström, and Benjamin Gardner

    47 Alignment: Impact on Implementation Processes and Outcomes

    Mark G. Ehrhart and Gregory A. Aarons

    48 Work-as-Imagined and Work-as-Done

    Erik Hollnagel and Robyn Clay-Williams

    49 Leading Implementation by Focusing on Strategic Implementation Leadership

    Gregory A. Aarons and Mark G. Ehrhart

    50 Agents of Change: The Example of an Allied Health Professional
    Kate Laver

    51 Clinical Decision Support
    David W. Bates

    52 Interprofessional Team Working: The Case of Care Pathways

    Kris Vanhaecht and Ellen Coeckelberghs

    53 Older People’s Care

    Jackie Bridges

    54 Implementation Interventions to Enhance Patient Self-management

    Michel Wensing

    55 Complex Systems and Unintended Consequences

    Robyn Clay-Williams

    56 The Nature and Need for Slack in Healthcare Services

    Tarcisio A. Saurin

    57 Diagnosis Errors

    Gordon D. Schiff

    58 "Scaling-Out" Evidence-based Practices
    Marisa Sklar and Gregory A. Aarons

    59 Implementation Sustainability

    Sharon E. Straus

    60 De-implementation

    Iestyn Williams and Russell Mannion


    Frances Rapport is Professor of Health Implementation Science at Macquarie University’s Centre for Healthcare Resilience and Implementation Science, Sydney, Australia, is Academic Lead, MD Research, Macquarie University, and holds an Honorary Chair as Professor of Qualitative Health Research at Swansea University’s Medical School, UK. She currently leads a team of implementation scientists examining new models of implementation to support the translation of research outcomes into practical solutions for healthcare delivery and improvement. Rapport has a visiting professorship in Bournemouth University, UK, and was previously a visiting professor at Harvard University (Psychiatry), Texas University, Galveston (Medical Board), and the University of Tromsø (Medical Humanities) in Norway.

    Robyn Clay-Williams is Associate Professor of Human Factors and Resilience and an internationally regarded health services researcher, who leads a research stream at the Australian Institute of Health and Innovation (AIHI), Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Her expertise is in creating health systems that can function effectively in the presence of complexity and uncertainty. Dr Clay-Williams’ research bridges the gap between theory and practice by developing products and processes that are usable and ready for implementation. She has a background in aviation and, prior to her academic career, was a military test pilot with the Royal Australian Air Force.

    Jeffrey Braithwaite is Founding Director of the AIHI, Director of the Centre for Healthcare Resilience and Implementation Science, and Professor of Health Systems Research, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. He has appointments at six other universities internationally, and he is a board member and President of the International Society for Quality in Health Care (ISQua) and consultant to the World Health Organization (WHO). Working with 152 countries on their reform initiatives, his research on safer, higher quality, and more resilient care examines health systems and their capacity to implement change and improvement, attracting funding of more than AUD 171 million. He is particularly interested in healthcare as a Complex Adaptive System and applying complexity science to healthcare problems.