This book examines core thematic approaches to the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and analyzes case studies regarding the implementation of this important global norm.
The volume analyzes this process at international, regional and local levels, and identifies an urgent need to progress from conceptual debates towards implementation in practice, in order to understand how to operationalize the preventive dimension of the R2P. It argues that R2P implementation necessarily entails the efforts of actors across governance levels, and that it is more effective when integrated into existing sites of practice aimed at strengthening human rights and accountability for populations in atrocity risk situations. The book addresses R2P implementation in the context of agendas such as resilience, gender, development cooperation, human rights, transitional justice, peacekeeping and civil-military relations. It details progress and challenges for implementation in the United Nations, regionally in Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia, and through national atrocity prevention architectures. The volume provides readers with a breadth of understanding in terms of both the development and current status of the R2P norm, and practical tools for advancing its implementation.
This book will be of much interest to students of the Responsibility to Protect, Human Rights, Peace Studies, and International Relations in general.
Table of Contents
Foreword Gareth Evans
Introduction: The challenges of implementing the R2P norm Cecilia Jacob and Martin Mennecke
1. R2P as an atrocity prevention framework: Concepts and institutionalization at the global level Cecilia Jacob
Part I: National implementation mechanisms
2. Denmark and the implementation of R2P Martin Mennecke
3. Atrocity prevention under the Obama administration Stephen Pomper
Part II: Regional implementation mechanisms
4. ASEAN regionalism and capacity building for atrocities prevention: Challenges and prospects Noel M. Morada
5. African experiences of R2P implementation Frank O. Okyere
6. Europe’s contested engagement with R2P in a transitional international order Edward Newman and Cristina Stefan
Part III: Atrocity prevention
7. Atrocity prevention, national resilience, and implementation Stephen McLoughlin
8. Atrocity prevention in practice: Studying the role of Southeast Asian women in atrocity prevention Sara E. Davies
Part IV: International legal accountability
9. Linking human rights accountability and compliance with R2P implementation Ekkehard Strauss
10. Linking the past and the present: The contribution of transitional justice to security after complex conflicts Susanne Karstedt and Michael Koch
Part V: Peacekeeping, civil‒military assistance, and stabilization
11. Implementing R2P through United Nations peacekeeping operations: Opportunities and challenges Charles T. Hunt and Lisa Sharland
12. Civil‒military relations and R2P: The Afghan experience William Maley
Conclusion: R2P at a crossroads: Implementation, or marginalization Ivan Šimonović
Cecilia Jacob is a fellow in the Department of International Relations, the Australian National University, Canberra.
Martin Mennecke is associate professor of international law at the University of Southern Denmark and adviser to the R2P Focal Point in the Danish Foreign Ministry.
'The grim reality of today’s crises could not be more alerting of the need to expedite implementation of the responsibility to protect. This book invites reflection and provides practical suggestions on moving beyond rhetorical and reiterated commitments to developing practical agendas for action; not only by international actors in inter-governmental fora, but also by regional and national actors at the domestic level, where the most significant potential for strengthening atrocity prevention resides. Ultimately, effective prevention requires informed, coordinated, and timely action by all those in a position to turn this noble aspiration into a solid and sustained reality.'-- Adama Dieng, Under-Secretary-General, Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide
'This book is an important and useful resource for all actors that are committed to applying atrocity prevention in practice. As we witness unimaginable atrocities in various parts of the world, policy makers have to take practical steps to implement their responsibility to protect populations from mass atrocities. Jacob and Mennecke provide much needed input to this process through a set of highly instructive essays.'-- Christian Leffler, R2P Focal Point of the European Union, Deputy-Secretary General of the EU’s European External Action Service
'This multi-disciplinary collection speaks to both critics and supporters of R2P. For the former, it provides evidence that R2P has in fact translated "words into deeds". For the latter, it demonstrates that R2P can - and must - extend beyond the United Nations to regions and national contexts, but also beyond governments to key domestic stakeholders. The book usefully points to new avenues through which R2P's objectives can be realised, given the more challenging geopolitical context in which the norm will be debated and the increasing fragmentation of conflicts and societies that heighten the risk of atrocity crimes.'-- Jennifer Welsh, Canada 150 Research Chair in Global Governance and Security at McGill University, and former Special Adviser to the UN Secretary General on the Responsibility to Protect
'An impressive and timely contribution to the ongoing reflection on how to translate norms and political commitments into effective actions to prevent atrocities in our changing world.'-- Judge Silvia Fernandez de Gurmendi, former President of the International Criminal Court and incoming Chair of the Global Action against Mass Atrocity Crimes (GAAMAC)
'The timeliness of Jacob and Mennecke's book is all to stark. For those who today face bombardment in Syria, or persecution in Myanmar, the Responsibility to Protect is not an academic enterprise. Rather, it is a life-saving emerging norm, the implementation of which needs to be accelerated. Thus, the political debates and at times political theater outlined in the book will provide them with little solace. But for practitioners, this book is a necessary resource in the process of translating norms and theory into live-saving practice. Only by undertaking a frank assessment of efforts thus far, the arguments for and against R2P, and the outlining of real-world examples of how to implement R2P will be able to collectively turn rhetoric into reality and narrow the gap between expectation and the lived realities of those who face a daily risk of atrocities.'-- Naomi Kikoler, Acting Director, Simon-Skjodt Center for the Prevention of Genocide, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
'The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is the organising principle for the international community to respond to mass atrocities inside sovereign borders. For over a decade, the United Nations has emphasized the importance of moving from the words endorsed unanimously in 2005 to deeds. This timely, important and international collection of essays addresses the protection and prevention record to date, and how the remaining implementation gaps might be filled by relevant actors and institutions.'-- Professor Emeritus Ramesh Thakur, The Australian National University
'This book by Jacob and Mennecke focuses on the uneven and imperfect reality of the implementation of the norm of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) over the past decade. At a time when 68.5 million people are displaced by persecution, conflict, and atrocities, this book examines the gap between the rapid advance of R2P as a mobilizing principle of international diplomacy, and the harsh reality of the failure to halt atrocities in Syria, Yemen, Myanmar, and elsewhere. This book offers unique and practical perspectives on how we can work together to ensure that the failures of the past are not endlessly repeated. It is a book that is committed to enhancing the policy and practice of atrocity prevention.'-- Dr Simon Adams, Executive Director, Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
'This book is a very useful tool for policymakers and practitioners; it demystifies R2P, and unpacks and situates it within our everyday life.'-- Ms Felistas Mushi, Chairperson of Tanzania’s National Committee on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity, War Crimes and all Forms of Discrimination