1st Edition

In-Situ Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Sites

    204 Pages
    by CRC Press

    204 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Providing an introduction, the scientific background, case studies and future perspectives of in-situ arsenic remediation technologies for soils, soil water and groundwater at geogenic and anthropogenic contaminated sites. The case studies present in-situ technologies about natural arsenic, specifically arsenate and arsenite, but also about organic arsenic compounds. This work covers geochemical, microbiological and plant ecological solutions for arsenic remediation.

    It will serve as a standard textbook for (post-)graduate students and researchers in the field of Environmental Sciences and Hydrogeochemistry as well as researchers, engineers, environmental scientists and chemists, toxicologists, medical scientists and even for general public seeking an in-depth view of arsenic which had been classed as a carcinogen. This book aims to stimulate awareness among administrators, policy makers and company executives of in-situ remediation technologies at sites contamined by arsenic and to improve the international cooperation on the subject.

    About the book series
    Editorial board
    Dedication to Arun Bilash Mukherjee, D.Sc.
    List of contributors
    Editors’ foreword
    About the editors

    1 In-situ technologies for groundwater treatment: the case of arsenic
    Marta I. Litter, José Luis Cortina, António M.A. Fiúza, Aurora Futuro & Christos Tsakiroglou

    1.1 Introduction: In-situ technologies for groundwater treatment
    1.2 Permeable reactive barriers
    1.3 Removal of arsenic from groundwater using reactive geochemical barriers
    1.3.1 General
    1.3.2 PRB types for treating arsenic in groundwater PRBs with Fe(0) Barriers with iron slag Barriers with mixtures of iron hydroxides and activated alumina Composite barriers
    1.4 Applications of PRBs
    1.4.1 Application of Montana
    1.4.2 Application to the treatment of groundwater contaminated by acid drainage from pyrite mines
    1.4.3 The Aznalcóllar pollution case
    1.5 Limitations of iron reactive barriers: use of reactive zones
    1.6 Use of iron nanoparticles
    1.6.1 Increase of the reactivity by size decrease
    1.6.2 Preparation of iron nanoparticles
    1.6.3 Bimetallic nZVI particles
    1.6.4 Stability of metal nanoparticles
    1.6.5 Other zerovalent nanoparticles used in soil and groundwater remediation
    1.6.6 Field application of nZVI injection in subsurface
    1.6.7 Summary of advantages of the use of metal nanoparticles
    1.7 Problems to be solved in the technology of permeable reactive barriers with ZVI
    1.8 Electrokinetics
    1.9 In-situ chemical treatment
    1.10 Combination of electrokinetics and PRB
    1.11 Concluding remarks

    2 Numerical modeling of arsenic mobility
    Ilka Wallis, Henning Prommer & Dimitri Vlassopoulos

    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Modelling approaches, types of models and common modelling tools
    2.3 The simulation of processes affecting as transport behavior
    2.3.1 Modeling groundwater flow and solute transport
    2.3.2 Processes controlling the geochemical environment
    2.3.3 Sorption and desorption
    2.3.4 Mineral dissolution and precipitation
    2.4 Summary and outlook

    3 Phytostabilization of arsenic
    Claes Bergqvist & Maria Greger

    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Arsenic
    3.3 Soil composition and arsenic availability
    3.4 Plant traits in phytostabilization
    3.5 Phytostabilization of arsenic
    3.5.1 Immobilization and mobilization of arsenic by plants
    3.5.2 Plant species suitable for arsenic phytostabilization
    3.6 Amendments for enhanced arsenic stabilization
    3.6.1 Amendments for arsenic stabilization
    3.6.2 Unsuitable or inefficient amendments for arsenic stabilization
    3.7 Management plan for arsenic phytostabilization
    3.7.1 Soil parameters that influence arsenic mobility
    3.7.2 Amendments that encourage plant vegetation and As immobility
    3.7.3 Selecting plant species for arsenic phytostabilization
    3.7.4 Methods suitable for combining with arsenic phytostabilization
    3.8 Concluding remarks

    4 Recent advances in phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils
    XinWang & Lena Qiying Ma

    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Phytoextraction of arsenic contaminated soils
    4.2.1 Efficient arsenic extraction by P. vittata
    4.2.2 Arsenic hyperaccumulation mechanisms Arsenic mobilization via root exudates Efficient root uptake system Efficient arsenic translocation to fronds
    4.2.3 Potential improvement Phosphorous amendment Mycorrhizal symbiosis
    4.2.4 Potential environmental risks Invasive risk Disposal of arsenic-rich biomass
    4.3 Phytostabilization
    4.3.1 Indigenous tolerant species with low TF
    4.3.2 Substrate improvement by legumes
    4.3.3 Fe oxides and biochar
    4.3.4 Phosphate
    4.3.5 Organic matter
    4.3.6 Mycorrhiza
    4.4 Phytoexclusion
    4.4.1 Water management
    4.4.2 Silicon fertilization
    4.4.3 Arsenic sequestration by Fe plaque
    4.4.4 Pretreatment of arsenic-contaminated irrigating water
    4.5 Conclusions

    5 Fundamentals of electrokinetics
    Soon-Oh Kim, Keun-Young Lee & Kyoung-Woong Kim

    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Electrokinetic phenomena
    5.2.1 Electrokinetic transport phenomena Electromigration or ionic migration Electroosmosis or electroosmotic advection Electrophoresis Diffusion
    5.2.2 Electrolysis of water
    5.2.3 Fundamental principle of electrokinetic remediation Transport and removal of inorganic contaminants Transport and removal of organic contaminants Enhancement schemes for electrokinetic soil remediation Implementation of electrokinetic remediation Advantages and disadvantages of electrokinetic technology
    5.3 Design and operation of electrokinetic remediation
    5.3.1 Factors affecting the performance of electrokinetic remediation Properties of soil Characteristics of contaminants Voltage and current level
    5.3.2 Practical consideration for optimization of operation and design of electrokinetic remediation Electrode Electrolyte chemistry and enhancement scheme Type of electricity
    5.4 Field applications of electrokinetic remediation
    5.5 Prospects for electrokinetic remediation

    6 Microbial in-situ mitigation of arsenic contamination in plants and soils
    Nandita Singh, Pankaj Kumar Srivastava, Rudra Deo Tripathi, Shubhi Srivastava & Aradhana Vaish

    6.1 Basics of arsenic bioremediation
    6.2 Influence of microbes on the speciation and bioavailability of arsenic
    6.2.1 Arsenic speciation
    6.2.2 Role of soil
    6.2.3 Role of microbes
    6.3 Mitigation of As contamination in soil: microbial approaches and mechanisms
    6.3.1 Biostimulation
    6.3.2 Bioaugmentation Microbially mediated As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation Bioaccumulation and biosorption Efflux Biomethylation and biovolatilization
    6.4 Microbes-mediated mitigation of As in contaminated soils: associated factors affecting mitigation
    6.4.1 Irrigation
    6.4.2 Habitat
    6.4.3 Soil properties
    6.4.4 Root exudates
    6.4.5 Plant microbe interactions
    6.4.6 Mycorrhiza
    6.4.7 Iron plaque
    6.4.8 Microbes-As interaction
    6.5 Strategies for bioremediation of arsenic
    6.5.1 Screening and selection of suitable microbes
    6.5.2 Identification and manipulation of a functionally active microbial population
    6.5.3 Specific functions of microbes
    6.5.4 Genetically engineered (GE) bacteria
    6.5.5 Enhancement of bioremediation by use of surfactants
    6.5.6 Priming and encapsulation
    6.6 Conclusions

    7 In-situ immobilization of arsenic in the subsurface on an anthropogenic contaminated site
    Timo Krüger, Hartmut M. Holländer, Jens Stummeyer, Bodo Harazim, Peter-W. Boochs & Max Billib

    7.1 Arsenic in chemical warfare agents
    7.2 Site description
    7.3 Remediation method
    7.3.1 Precipitation and sorption by metals
    7.3.2 Remediation technique
    7.4 Field experiment results
    7.4.1 Arsenic concentration
    7.4.2 Change in arsenic species distribution
    7.4.3 Iron concentration
    7.5 Conclusions

    Subject index
    Books published in this book series


    Jochen Bundschuh (1960, Germany), finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tübingen in 1990. He is working in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. From 1993 to 1999 he served as an expert for the German Agency of Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and as a long-term professor for the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) in Argentine. From 2001 to 2008 he worked within the framework of the German governmental cooperation (Integrated Expert Program of CIM; GTZ/BA) as adviser in mission to Costa Rica at the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE). Here, he assisted the country in evaluation and development of its huge low-enthalpy geothermal resources for power generation. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was elected Vice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development ISGSD. From 2009–2011 he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. By the end of 2011 he was appointed as professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia where he leads a working group of 26 researchers working on the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment and sustainable and renewable energy resources (http://www.ncea.org.au/groundwater). In November 2012, Prof. Bundschuh was appointed as president of the newly established Australian Chapter of the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA).
    Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books "Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation" (2008) (Balkema/Taylor&Francis/CRC Press) and "Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks". He is editor of the books "Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries" (2002), "Natural Arsenic in Groundwater" (2005), and the two-volume monograph "Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards" (2007), "Groundwater for Sustainable Development" (2008), "Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America (2008). Dr. Bundschuh is editor of the book series "Multiphysics Modeling", "Arsenic in the Environment", and "Sustainable Energy Developments" (all Balkema/CRC Press/Taylor & Francis).

    Hartmut Holländer is a civil engineer specialized in numerical groundwater modeling. He was awarded his Ph.D. in 2005. After his post-doctoral position at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation (CSIRO), Adelaide, Australia, he joined the Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) Cottbus, Germany in 2008. He served from 2010 to 2012 as a research scientist in the State Authority of Mining, Energy and Geology, Hanover, Germany before he joined in 2013 as a research associate and adjunct professor the University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Dr. Holländer’s research program focuses on numerical studies on heat transport problems related to geothermal energy, density-driven flow, and groundwater contamination. Additionally, he conducts laboratory experiments on remediations and tests the methods in the field. He covers the undergraduate and graduate courses of Groundwater Hydrology, Groundwater Contamination, and Groundwater and Solute Transport Modelling at the University of Manitoba.

    Lena Q. Ma is a Professor in the Soil and Water Science Department at the University of Florida. She earned her B.S. degree in Soil Science from Shenyang Agricultural University in 1985. She obtained her M.S. and Ph.D degrees from Colorado State University in 1989 and 1991. After spending three years as a post-doctoral scientist at the Ohio State University, she joined the University of Florida as an assistant professor in 1994. She was promoted to an associate professor in 1999 and a professor in 2003.
    Dr. Ma’s research program focuses on environmental soil chemistry with an emphasis on biogeochemistry of trace metals. She conducts basic and applied research on soil contamination and remediation especially phytoremediation. She teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses including Introductory Soil, Soil Contamination and Remediation, Biogeochemistry of Trace Metals, and Graduate Seminar.
    Dr. Ma’s significant contributions to both basic and applied science are recognized nationally and internationally. She received the Discovery 2001 Award from the Royal Geographical Society and Discovery Networks Europe. She is the recipient of 2002 Gamma Sigma Delta Junior Faculty Award at University of Florida, 2003 Sigma Xi Junior Faculty Research Award at University of Florida and 2004 USDA Secretary’s Honor Award. She was elected a fellow of American Society of Agronomy in 2002, American Society of Soil Science in 2003 and American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2012. Professor Ma published nearly 200 refereed journal articles and book chapters.