1st Edition

In the Shadow of Genocide Justice and Memory within Rwanda

Edited By Stephanie Wolfe, Matthew Kane, Tawia Ansah Copyright 2023
    312 Pages 7 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book brings together scholars and practitioners for a unique inter-disciplinary exploration of justice and memory within Rwanda. It explores the various strategies the state, civil society, and individuals have employed to come to terms with their past and shape their future. The main objective and focus is to explore broad and varied approaches to post-atrocity memory and justice through the work of those with direct experience with the genocide and its aftermath. This includes many Rwandan authors as well as scholars who have conducted fieldwork in Rwanda. By exploring the concepts of how justice and memory are understood the editors have compiled a book that combines disciplines, voices, and unique insights that are not generally found elsewhere. Including academics and practitioners of law, photographers, poets, members of Rwandan civil society, and Rwandan youth this book will appeal to scholars and students of political science, legal studies, French and francophone studies, African studies, genocide and post-conflict studies, development and healthcare, social work, education and library services.

    Part One: Memories of Genocide

    1. Memory And Justice: A Personal, Cultural, and Global Experience Matthew C. Kane with contributions from Stephanie Wolfe

    2. Through The Eyes Of Children: The 1994 Genocide Against The Tutsi In Rwanda Ashlee Cawley and Stephanie Wolfe with contributions from Omar Ndizeye, Jacqueline Murekatete, Consolee Nishimwe, Théobald Kayiranga, Jason Nshimye, and Eugenie Mukeshimana

    3. Experts In The Suffering Of Others: Race, Knowledge Production, And The Rwandan Genocide MJ Rwigema

    4. Testimonies Of Child Survivors From Gitarama Prefecture: Preserving Memory Of The 1994 Rwanda Genocide Musa Wakhungu Olaka

    Part Two: Justice and Society

    5. Justice And Transformation Within Rwanda Joseph Ryarasa Nkurunziza

    6. Transitional Justice In The Wake Of Genocide: The Contribution Of Criminal Trials And Symbolic Reparations To Reconciliation in Rwanda Samantha J. Lakin and Charity Wibabara

    7. "Double Genocide" Or Revenge Killings? Did The Liberators Of A Genocide Commit Their Own? Jonathan R. Beloff

    8. Moving Forward: Creating A Safe Space For Women Raped During the 1994 Genocide Against The Tutsi In Rwanda Odeth Kantengwa

    Part Three: Justice and Memory through Artistic Expression

    9. An Open Grave: The Kigali Memorial And The Aesthetics Of Memorialization Tawia B. Ansah

    10. Remembering Rwanda Through Transnational, Multivocal Narrative Anna-Marie de Beer

    11. Fictions Of Justice In Post-Genocide Films: Conflict Resolution And The Search For Reconciliation George S. MacLeod

    12. Memory And Photographs Of Unrepresentable Trauma In Rwandan Transitional Justice Sonya de Laat

    13. Rwandan Youth Speak! Memory And Justice Through Poetry Ashlee Cawley and Stephanie Wolfe

    Poetry by Jessica Gatoni, Bliss Light Nshokeyinka, Claudine Karangwa Ingabire, Fred Mfuranzima, Guy Cadeau, and Innocent Byiringiro

    Part Four: Conclusion

    14. Conclusion Tawia B. Ansah


    Stephanie Wolfe  Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at Weber State University in the Political Science and Philosophy department and a Research Associate in the Department of Ancient and Modern Languages and Cultures, University of Pretoria. Her research focuses on memory and justice following mass atrocities. Publications include The Politics of Reparations and Apologies (2014), and several book chapters on international law, reparations and apologies and memorialization.

    Tawia B. Ansah, Ph.D., J.D., is a Professor of Law, a former Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, and former Acting Dean of Florida International University College of Law. His international experience includes service with the United Nations Field Operation to Rwanda.

    Matthew C. Kane, LLM, J.D., is a practicing attorney and offers courses on international criminal law at the University of Oklahoma College of Law. He has been appointed to the list of counsel for the International Criminal Court and publishes extensively on issues relating to the ICC and other war crimes tribunals.

    Having walked through the killing fields of Rwanda shortly after the genocide there, I can attest as to the importance of first-hand knowledge of this overwhelming atrocity. In the Shadow of Genocide captures such testimonies from those who experienced the genocide and its aftermath and examines critical issues of justice and memory a quarter century later.   

    Professor David J. Scheffer, former U.S. Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues (1997-2001) and author of All The Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals

    In the Shadow of Genocide is the embodiment of a broader discussion of transitional justice, beyond criminal justice or truth commissions, incorporating the necessary range of concepts of justice and memory that are required for a community to progress after conflict/genocide. An inclusive and diverse range of authors, including Rwandan voices, makes this an important and unique book dealing with the aftermath of genocide and conflict in Rwanda and beyond.

    Dr Melanie O’Brien, Associate Professor of International Law, University of Western Australia; President, International Association of Genocide Scholars.

    This important book provides a holistic look at justice, truth, and memory in post-genocide Rwanda. Its most significant contribution may be in bringing together and preserving diverse and less often heard voices, including those of Rwandan scholars, survivors, artists, and youths.

    Jennifer Trahan, Clinical Professor, NYU Center for Global Affairs and author of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity: A Digest of the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

    After a quarter century, one might think that the story of the genocide in Rwanda had been fully told. Then comes In the Shadows, providing new accounts and a novel analysis of genocide and recovery, an invaluable contribution to the historical record.

    Professor Leila Nadya Sadat, Director of the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative and Special Adviser on Crimes Against Humanity International Criminal Court Prosecutor

    In the Shadow of Genocide is essential reading on justice and memory in Rwanda since the 1994 Genocide Against the Tutsi. This interdisciplinary book features insightful, original contributions from a diverse array of scholars and practitioners, young and older writers, and Rwandans and non-Rwandans who have conducted significant fieldwork in Rwanda. Highly recommended.

    Zachary D. Kaufman, J.D., Ph.D.; Visiting Associate Professor of Law, Washington University in St. Louis School of Law; Associate Professor of Law and Political Science & Co-Director of the Criminal Justice Institute, University of Houston Law Center Author, United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice: Principles, Politics, and Pragmatics (Oxford University Press)

    During my time at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, I led the prosecution of the leaders of the hate media and met with victims who shared recollections very much like those of Consolee Nishimwe who tells her story in these pages. Each witness has a searing experience to share, a contribution to our understanding of what occurred and why we must act to prevent such atrocities in the future. In the Shadows brings to us accounts of human suffering and survival that might otherwise be lost forever.

    Stephen Rapp, Former U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for Global Criminal Justice, and former international prosecutor at Rwanda and Sierra Leone Tribunals