Indian Ocean Resources and Technology: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Indian Ocean Resources and Technology

1st Edition

By Ganpat Singh Roonwal

CRC Press

219 pages | 23 Color Illus. | 41 B/W Illus.

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The current scenario provides an ideal opportunity to confer higher priority to the marine resources of the Indian Ocean, particularly in terms of integrated management of the deep sea, shallow sea and coastal resources. This will maximize their potential in the sustainable development goal (SDG) pattern, leading to an appropriate environmental management. Therefore, this book aims to provide an overview of the area and to highlight the potential market opportunities represented by this vast and rapidly developing nation. In doing so the following aspects have been covered:

  • Exclusive title focussing on mineral resources of Indian ocean.
  • Discusses living, nonliving, ocean waves and tidal energy, ocean environment and protection aspects.
  • Includes information on key themes, details of organizations associated with the Indian Ocean.
  • Illustrates deep sea mining technology and environmental perspectives.
  • Covers hydrocarbons-sub sea oil and gas, minerals from placer deposits to deep sea nodules, sea floor massive sulphides and cobalt rich encrustations.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Indian Ocean and its Associates

1.1 Uniqueness of Indian Ocean

1.2 The Indian Ocean and Sub-seas

1.3 Offshore Bed Rock Mineral Deposits

1.4 Sediment Pattern

1.5 Exclusive Economic Zone

1.6 Shallow Oceanic Mineral Deposits

1.7 Deep Oceanic Mineral Deposits


Chapter 2: Ores in the Deep Sea – Manganese Nodules

2.1 General

2.2 What are Mn – Nodules ?

2.3 Distribution of Manganese Nodules

2.4 Deep Sea Mineral Resources

2.5 Growth Pattern, Mineralogy and Geochemistry

2.6 Genesis of manganese nodules and manganese crusts

2.7 Mining Claims and Exploration

2.8 Indian Ocean Nodules


Chapter 3: Ores in the Deep-Sea – Cobalt and Platinum Rich Ferromanganese Crusts

3.1 The Cobalt Rich Crusts

3.2 Mineralogy and Geochemistry

3.3 Processes of Accretion and Formation

3.4 Crust Texture, Thickness, Rate of Growth and Substract Characteristics

3.5 Indian Ocean Occurrences



Chapter 4: Ores in the Deep - Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS) and Metalliferous Mud

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Nature, Distribution and Genesis of SMS Deposits and Metalliferous Mud

4.3 Seafloor Sulfides in the Indian Ocean

4.4 Volcanogenic Massive Sulfides (SMS) Deposits on the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge

4.5 Hydrothermal Mineralization in the Andaman Sea

4.6 Industrial Interest in SMS

4.7 The Scientific Significance of SMS Research


Chapter 5: Shallow Oceanic and Coastal Mineral Deposits

5.1 General

5.2 Phospharite

5.3 Construction Material

5.4 Heavy Mineral Placers

5.5 Economic Consideration and Application of Rare Earths in High Technology

5.6. Factors Controlling Formation of Beach Placers

5.7 Exploration and Evaluation of Heavy Mineral Placer Deposits

5.8 Important Coastal Placer Deposits of India

5.9 Heavy Mineral Placer of East African Coast

5.10 Tin Placers of Southeast Asia

5.11 Resource Position


Chapter 6: Shallow Oceanic, Non-living Resource: Petroleum and Hydrocarbon

6.1 General

6.2 Potential Hydrocarbon Basins in the West Coast of India Arabian Sea

6.3 Hydrocarbon Potential Along Eastern Offshore in the Bay of Bengal

6.4 Hydrocarbon Potential in the Andaman Sea

6.5 Gas Hydrates Resources in the Bay of Bengal

6.6 Significance of the Andaman Sea

6.7 Hydrocarbon Potential in the East African Coast


Chapter 7: Living Resources – Fish and Fishery

7.1 Biomass for Fishery

7.2 Tuna Fishing in the Indian Ocean

7.3 Fish Catch Status

7.4 Tuna Fish in the Indian Ocean

7.5 Some Challenges of Fishing in the Indian Ocean

7.6 Fishing in the Southern Indian Ocean

7.7 Fishery in the Mangrooves of Indian Ocean

7.8 Fishing in the Indian EEZ

7.9 Fisheries Management and Best Practices in the Indian Ocean


Chapter 8: Energy and Fresh Water from the Ocean

8.1 Ocean Energy and Types

8.2 The Monsoon Pattern and Thermal Structure

8.3 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

8.4 Ocean Wave Energy

8.5. Tidal Energy

8.6 Sweet Water from the Sea - Low Temperature Thermal Desalination Applications for Drinking Water


Chapter 9: Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

9.1 General

9.2 Development Perspective

9.3 Tasks and Applications

9.4 Developmental Trends in ROV and AUV Technology

9.5 Non-Hydrocarbon related ROV and AUV uses / Technology Transfer

9.6 Future Trends


Chapter 10: Seabed Mineral Exploration and Deep-Sea Mining Technology

10.1 General

10.2 Exploration Methods for Manganese Nodules

10.3 Exploration for Massive Sulfides on the Mid-Oceanic Ridges

10.4 Extent and Grade of SMS Deposits

10.5 Technology Needs for Exploration and Mining

10.6 Mineral Processing and Refining

10.7 Other Factors


Chapter 11: Ocean Environment and Pollution

11.1 Environmental Issues

11.2 Environment and Tectonics, and Eustatic Sea Level Changes

11.3 Environmental Effects Due to Mining

11.4 Potential Environment Impact related to Phosphorite Mining

11.5 Wastes in the Deep Sea

11.6 Indian Ocean and Climate Change


Chapter 12: The Future Options – The Growing Ocean Economy

12.1 General

12.2 Exclusive Economic Zone in the Indian Ocean

12.3 Implications of EEZ in the Indian Ocean

12.4 Economics of Deep Sea Mining

12.5 Estimates of Demand

12.6 Future Demand and Ocean Economy of Deep Sea Mining

12.7 Research Ships and Ship Building in India

12.8 Techno-Business Opportunity in the Indian Ocean


References – Future Reading



About the Author

G S Roonwal is an Honorary Visiting Professor at the Inter University Accelerator Centre New Delhi. He was earlier a Professor in Geology and Head of the Department of Geology, University of Delhi. He has participated in exploration of sea floor manganese nodules and the seabed massive sulphides. He has authored "The Indian Ocean Exploitable Mineral and Petroleum Resources (Springer,Heidelberg) and "competition for Seabed Resources in the Indian Ocean"Beside, he is a co-editor of "India’s Exclusive Economic Zone"and "Living Resources of India’s Exclusive Economic Zone". G S Roonwal is a reputed geologist, a recipient of the National Mineral Award by the Government of India, and several other awards. He has worked with distinguished marine geologists overseas and travelled to several countries beside the oceans. He is listed in Marques ’Who’ Who in the World and Marques Who’s Who in Asia since several years.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Marine Biology