Ecological surrogates and indicators are used widely by resource managers because they provide a simpler way to monitor and understand complex biota and ecosystem processes. The potential for surrogates and indicators to guide complex resource management has meant they have been proposed for use in all ecosystems worldwide. The book draws together research about surrogates and indicators, where to use them, where not to use them, and how they can be best used in cases where they are proposed for application.
General Introduction. Overview of indicators and surrogates. Indicators and Surrogates in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Indicators and Surrogates in Aquatic Ecosystems. Indicators and surrogates in marine ecosystems. Indicators and Surrogates in Atmospheric Ecosystems. Indicators. Surrogates and Genetics. Policy Perspectives. General Conclusions.