This book examines the diverse use of Indigenous customary rights in modern landscapes from a multidisciplinary perspective. Divided into two parts, the first deals explicitly with Sámi customary rights in relation to nature conservation in the Nordic countries and Russia from a legal and historical perspective. The authors investigate how longstanding Sámi customary territorial rights have been reassessed in the context of new kinds of legislation regarding Indigenous people. They also look at the ideas behind the historical models of nature conservation. The second part deals with the ideas and implementation of new kinds of postcolonial models of nature conservation. The case of the Sámi is compared with other Indigenous people internationally with cases from Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India. The work investigates how the governance of protected areas has been influenced by the principles of equality and positive discrimination, and how it has affected the possibilities of establishing adaptive co-management arrangements for specific areas. How the legal situation of Indigenous peoples has been recognised in an international context is also investigated. The volume provides a multidisciplinary analysis of how the customary livelihood of Indigenous people has adapted to modern industrialised landscapes and also how postcolonial approaches have contributed to global changes of Indigenous rights and nature conservation models.
The Sami Reindeer herders, whose flocks and cultural landscapes span Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, provide, in this book, an ideal comparative basis for understanding indigenous peoples’ key role in breaking the monopoly of bureaucratic, wilderness-fixated nature management regimes, and the uniform, globalized nature conservation these regimes foster. Kenneth R. Olwig, Professor Emeritus, SLU-Alnarp, Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Sweden.
Introduction (Lars Elenius) Part 1: Legislation and Historically Changed Policies within Sápmi Chapter 1. Nordic Legislation on Protected Areas: How does it affect Sami customary rights? (Christina Allard) Chapter 2. Conceptions of Ethnicity and Nature Conservation in Reindeer Herding Areas in Sweden and Finland (Lars Elenius) Chapter 3. Rights of the Naturised (Tore Anderssson) Chapter 4. Protecting Sacred Sites, Maintaining Cultural Heritage, and Sharing Power: Co-management of the SGang Gwaay UNESCO World Heritage Site in Canada (Thora Herrmann, Leena Heinämäki & Cindy Morin) Chapter 5. Land Rights as the Prerequisite for Sámi Culture: Skolt Sámi’s Changing Relation to Nature in Finland (Panu Itkonen) Chapter 6. Nature Conservation in Russia: The Case of Indigenous Sami Rights in the Kola Peninsula (Vladislava Vladimirova) Part 2: Governance of Indigenous Space in a Global Context Chapter 7. Reimagining Governance for ‘Yellowstone’ Modeled National Parks in the New Era of Indigenous Legal Recognition (Jacinta Ruru) Chapter 8. Engaging with Uncertainty: Shared Governance in Indigenous Conservation Landscapes (Michael Adams) Chapter 9. A Space for Sámi Values? Sámi Reindeer Herding and Norwegian National Parks (Jan Åge Riseth) Chapter 10. International Arenas, Local Space for Agency and National Discourse as Mediator: Protected Areas in Swedish and Norwegian Sápmi (Elsa Reimerson) Chapter 11. World Heritage Bureaucracy – How It Works and How It Affects Indigenous Peoples (Carina Green & Jan Turtinen) Chapter 12. Sami Participatory Rights in Area Protection and Management: The Influence of the Related CBD’s Programme in Finland and Norway (Antje Neumann) Chapter 13. Contrasting Nature, Contrasting Rights -Concluding Remarks (Christina Allard, Elsa Reimerson & Camilla Sandström)