In a world characterized by an encroaching homogeneity induced by the growth of multi-national corporations and globalization, the causes of difference accrue new levels of importance. This is as true of tourism as in many other spheres of life – and one cause of differentiation for tourism promotion is the culture of Indigenous Peoples. This offers opportunities for cultural renaissance, income generation and enhanced political empowerment, but equally there are possible costs of creating commodities out of aspects of life that previously possessed spiritual meaning. This book examines these issues from many different perspectives; from those of product design and enhancement; of the aspirations of various minority groupings; and the patterns of displacements that occur – displacements that are not simply spatial but also social and cultural. How can these changes be managed? Case studies and analysis is offered, derived from many parts of the globe including North America, Asia and Australasia. The contributors themselves have, in many instances, worked closely with groups and organizations of Indigenous Peoples and attempt to give voice to their concerns. The book is divided into various themes, each with a separate introduction and commentary. The themes are Visitor Experiences, Who manages Indigenous Cultural Tourism Product, Events and Artifacts, Conceptualisation and Aspiration. In a short final section the silences are noted – each silence representing a potential challenge for future research to build upon the notions and lessons reported in the book. The book is edited by Professor Chris Ryan from New Zealand, and Michelle Aicken of Horwath Asia Pacific.
Table of Contents
Tourist-Host Nexus – Research Considerations. (C. Ryan). Visitor Experiences of Indigenous Tourism – Introduction. (C. Ryan, B. Trauer). A Phenomenological Investigation of Tourists' Experience of Australian Indigenous culture. (G. Ingram). Understanding the Nature of the Marae Experience: Views from Hosts and Visitors at the Nga Hau E Wha National Marae, Christchurch, New Zealand. (A. McIntosh, H. Johnson). Balanda Tourists and Aboriginal People. (C. Ryan, J. Huyton). Who Manages Indigenous Cultural Tourism Product – Aspiration and Legimitimization. (C. Ryan). An Evaluation of Sustainable American Indian Tourism. (V.L. Gererich). Community-based Tourism and the Marginalized Communities in Botswana: The Case of the Basarwa in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. (J.E. Mbaiwa). Limits to Indigenous Ecotourism: An Exploratory Analysis from the Tl'azt'en Territories, Northern British Coumbia. (S.K. Nepal). Public Sector Initiatives for Aboriginal Small Business Development in Tourism. (J. Buultjens et al.). Events and Artifacts. (C. Ryan). Limiting Tourism and the Limits of Tourism: The Production and Consumption of Tourist Attractions in Western Flores. (M. Erb). Dongba Art in Lijiang, China: Indigenous Culture, Local Community and Tourism. (T. Yamamura). What and Where is the Indigenous at an Indigenous Festival? Observations from the Winter Festival in Jokkmokk, Sweden. (D.K. Muller, R. Pettersson). Conceptualisation and Aspiration. (C. Ryan, B. Trauer). Reconciliation Tourism: Challenging the Constraints of Economic Rationalism. (F. Higgins-Desbiolles). To Experience the 'Real' Australia – A Liminal Authentic Cultural
Experience. (J.R. Edelheim).
Conceptualising 'Otherness' as a Management Framework for Tourism Enterprise. (J. Cave). Concluding Words. (C. Ryan, M. Aicken).