Induction Machines Handbook: Steady State Modeling and Performance, 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Induction Machines Handbook

Steady State Modeling and Performance, 3rd Edition

By Ion Boldea

CRC Press

448 pages | 333 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780367466121
pub: 2020-06-02
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Description

Induction Machines Handbook: Steady State Modeling and Performance offers a thorough treatment of steady state modeling and performance of induction machines, the most used electric motors (generators) in rather constant or variable speed drives for even lower energy consumption and higher productivity in basically all industries, from home appliances, through robotics to e-transport and wind energy conversion.

Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, this third edition adds new sections such that:

1. Multiphase and multilayer tooth-wound coil windings

2. The brushless doubly fed induction machine (BDFIM)

3. Equivalent circuits for BDFIM

4. Control principles for doubly fed IM

5. Magnetic saturation effects on current and torque versus slip curves

6.Rotor leakage reactance saturation

7.Closed slots IM saturation

8. The origin of electromagnetic vibration by practical experience

9. PM-assisted split-phase cage-rotor IMs steady state

The promise of renewable (hydro and wind) energy via cage-rotor and doubly fed variable speed generators e-transport propulsion, i-home appliances makes this third edition state of the art tool, conceived with numerous case studies, timely for both Academia and Industry.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1

INDUCTION MACHINES: AN INTRODUCTION

1.1 Electric energy and induction motors

1.2 A hystorical touch

1.3 Induction machines in applications

1.4 Conclusion

1.5 References

CHAPTER 2

CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS AND OPERATION PRINCIPLES

2.1 Construction aspects of rotary IMs

2.1.1 The magnetic cores

2.1.2 Slot geometry

2.1.3 IM windings

2.1.4 Cage rotor windings

2.2 Construction aspects of linear induction motors

2.3 Operation principles of IMs

2.4 Summary

2.5 References

CHAPTER 3

MAGNETIC, ELECTRIC, AND INSULATION MATERIALS FOR IM

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Soft magnetic materials

3.3 Core (magnetic) losses

3.4 Electrical conductors

3.5 Insulation materials

3.5.1 Random – wound IM insulation

3.5.2 Form-wound windings

3.6 Summary

3.7 References

CHAPTER 4

INDUCTION MACHINE WINDINGS AND THEIR M.M.Fs

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The ideal travelling m.m.f. of a.c. windings

4.3 A primitive single layer winding

4.4 A primitive two-layer chorded winding

4.5 The mmf harmonics for integer q

4.6 Rules for designing practical a.c. windings

4.7 Basic fractional q three-phase a.c. windings

4.8 Basic pole-changing three-phase a.c. windings

4.9 Two-phase a.c. windings

4.10 Pole-changing with single-phase supply induction motors

4.11 Special topics on a.c. windings

4.12 The mmf of rotor windings

4.13 The “skewing” mmf concept

4.14 Multiphase and multilayer-tooth-wound coil windings

4.15 Summary

4.16 References

CHAPTER 5

THE MAGNETISATION CURVE AND INDUCTANCE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Equivalent airgap to account for slotting

5.3 Effective stack length

5.4 The basic magnetisation curve

5.4.1 The magnetisation curve via the basic magnetic circuit

5.4.2 Teeth defluxing by slots

5.4.3 Third harmonic flux modulation due to saturation

5.4.4 The analytical iterative model (AIM)

5.5 The emf in an a.c. winding

5.6 The magnetisation inductance

5.7 Saturated magnetization inductance by curve fitting

5.8 Summary

5.9 References

CHAPTER 6

LEAKAGE INDUCTANCES AND RESISTANCES

6.1 Leakage fields

6.2 Differential leakage inductances

6.3 Rectangular slot leakage inductance / single layer

6.4 Rectangular slot leakage inductance/two layers

6.5 Rounded shape slot leakage inductance / two layers

6.6 Zig-zag airgap leakage inductances

6.7 End-connection leakage inductance

6.8 Skewing leakage inductance

6.9 Rotor bar and end ring equivalent leakage inductance

6.10 Basic phase resistance

6.11 The cage rotor resistance

6.12 Simplified leakage saturation corrections

6.13 Reducing the rotor to stator

6.14 The brushless doubly fed induction machine (BDFIM)

6.15 Summary

6.16 References

CHAPTER 7

STEADY STATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PERFORMANCE

7.1 Basic steady-state equivalent circuit

7.2 Classification of operation modes

7.3 Ideal no-load operation

7.4 Short-circuit (zero speed) operation

7.5 No-load motor operation

7.6 The motor mode of operation

7.7 Generating to power grid

7.8 Autonomous induction generator mode

7.9 The electromagnetic torque

7.10 Efficiency and power factor

7.11 Phasor diagrams: standard and new

7.12 Alternative equivalent circuits

7.13 Unbalanced supply voltages

7.14 One stator phase is open

7.15 Unbalanced rotor windings

7.16 One rotor phase is open

7.17 When voltage varies around rated value

7.18 When stator voltages have time harmonics

7.19 Equivalent circuits for brushless doubly fed IMs

7.20 Summary

7.21 References

CHAPTER 8

STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL METHODS

8.1 Starting of cage-rotor induction motors

8.1.1 Direct starting

8.1.2 Autotransformer starting

8.1.3 Wye-delta starting

8.1.4 Softstarting

8.2 Starting of wound-rotor induction motors

8.3 Speed control methods for cage-rotor induction motors

8.3.1 The voltage reduction method

8.3.2 The pole-changing method.

8.4 Variable frequency methods

8.4.1 V/f scalar control characteristics

8.4.2 Rotor flux vector control

8.5 Speed control methods for wound rotor IMs

8.5.1 Additional voltage to the rotor (the doubly-fed machine)

8.6 Control basics of DFIMs

8.7 Summary

8.8 References

CHAPTER 9

SKIN AND ON – LOAD SATURATION EFFECTS

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The skin effect

9.2.1 Single conductor in rectangular slot

9.2.2 Multiple conductors in rectangular slots: series connection

9.2.3 Multiple conductors in slot: parallel connection

9.2.4 The skin effect in the end turns

9.3 Skin effects by the multilayer approach

9.4 Skin effect in the end rings via the multilayer approach

9.5 The double cage behaves like a deep bar cage

9.6 Leakage flux path saturation–a simplified approach

9.7 Leakage saturation and skin effects–a comprehensive analytical approach

9.7.1 The skewing mmf

9.7.2 Flux in the cross section marked by AB (Figure 9.25)

9.7.3 The stator tooth top saturates first

9.7.4 Unsaturated rotor tooth top

9.7.5 Saturated rotor tooth tip

9.7.6 The case of closed rotor slots

9.7.7 The algorithm

9.8 The FEM approach

9.9 Magnetic saturation effects on current/slip and torque/slip curves

9.10 Rotor slot leakage reactance saturation effects

9.11 Solid rotor effects

9.12 Standardized line-start induction motors

9.13 Summary

9.14 References

CHAPTER 10

AIRGAP FIELD SPACE HARMONICS, PARASITIC TORQUES, RADIAL FORCES, AND NOISE BASICS

10.1 Stator mmf produced airgap flux harmonics

10.2 Airgap field of a squirrel cage winding

10.3 Airgap permeance harmonics

10.4 Leakage saturation influence on airgap permeance

10.5 Main flux saturation influence on airgap permeance

10.6 The harmonics-rich airgap flux density

10.7 The eccentricity influence on airgap magnetic permeance

10.8 Interactions of mmf (or step) harmonics and airgap magnetic permeance harmonics

10.9 Parasitic torques

10.9.1 When do asynchronous parasitic torques occur?

10.9.2 Synchronous parasitic torques

10.9.3 Leakage saturation influence on synchronous torques

10.9.4 The secondary armature reaction

10.9.5 Notable differences between theoretical and experimental torque/speed curves

10.9.6 A case study: Ns/Nr = 36/28, 2p1 = 4, y/ = 1 and 7/9; m = 3 [7]

10.9.7 Evaluation of parasitic torques by tests (after [1])

10.10 Radial forces and electromagnetic noise basics

10.10.1 Constant airgap (no slotting, no eccentricity)

10.10.2 Influence of stator/rotor slot openings, airgap deflection and saturation

10.10.3 Influence of rotor eccentricity on noise

10.10.4 Parallel stator windings

10.10.5 Slip-ring induction motors

10.10.6 Mechanical resonance stator frequencies

10.11 Electromagnetic vibration: a practical view

10.12 Summary

10.13 References

CHAPTER 11

LOSSES IN INDUCTION MACHINES

11.1 Loss classifications

11.2 Fundamental electromagnetic losses

11.3 No-load space harmonics (stray no-load) losses in nonskewed IMs

11.3.1 No-load surface core losses

11.3.2 No load tooth flux pulsation losses

11.3.3 No-load tooth flux pulsation cage losses

11.4 Load space harmonics (stray load) losses in nonskewed IMs

11.5 Flux pulsation (stray) losses in skewed insulated bars

11.6 Interbar current losses in uninsulated skewed rotor cages

11.7 No – load rotor skewed uninsulated cage losses

11.8 Load rotor skewed uninsulated cage losses

11.9 Rules to reduce full load stray (space harmonics) losses

11.10 High frequency time harmonics losses

11.10.1 Conductor losses

11.10.2 Core losses

11.10.3 Total time harmonics losses

11.11 Computation of time harmonics conductor losses

11.12 Time harmonics interbar rotor current losses

11.13 Computation of time harmonic core losses

11.13.1 Slot wall core losses

11.13.2 Zig-zag rotor surface losses

11.14 Loss computation by FEM basics

11.15 Summary

11.16 References

CHAPTER 12

THERMAL MODELLING AND COOLING

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Some air cooling methods for IMs

12.3 Conduction heat transfer

12.4 Convection heat transfer

12.5 Heat transfer by radiation

12.6 Heat transport (thermal transients) in a homogenous body

12.7 Induction motor thermal transients at stall

12.8 Intermittent operation

12.9 Temperature rise (tON) and fall (tOFF) times

12.10 More realistic thermal equivalent circuits for IMs

12.11 A detailed thermal equivalent circuit for transients

12.12 Thermal equivalent circuit identification

12.13 Thermal analysis through FEM

12.14 Summary

12.15 References

CHAPTER 13

SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MACHINES: THE BASICS

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Split-phase induction motors

13.3 Capacitor induction motors

13.3.1 Capacitor-start induction motors

13.3.2 The two-value capacitor induction motor

13.3.3 Permanent-split capacitor induction motors

13.3.4 Tapped-winding capacitor induction motors

13.3.5 Split-phase capacitor induction motors

13.3.6 Capacitor three-phase induction motors

13.3.7 Shaded-pole induction motors

13.4 The nature of stator-produced airgap field

13.5 The fundamental m.m.f. and its elliptic wave

13.6 Forward-backward m.m.f. waves

13.7 The symmetrical components general model

13.8 The d-q model

13.9 The d-q model of star Steinmetz connection

13.10 PM-assisted split-phase cage – rotor IMs

13.11 Summary

13.11 References

CHAPTER 14

SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS: STEADY STATE

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Steady state performance with open auxiliary winding

14.3 The split phase and the capacitor IM: currents and torque

14.4 Symmetrization conditions

14.5 Starting torque and current inquires

14.6 Typical motor characteristics

14.7 Non orthogonal stator windings

14.8 Symmetrization conditions for non-orthogonal windings

14.9 M.M.F. space harmonic parasitic torques

14.10 Torque pulsations

14.11 Inter-bar rotor currents

14.12 Voltage harmonics effects

14.13 The doubly tapped winding capacitor IM

14.14 Summary

14.15 References

About the Author

Ion Boldea, IEEE Life Fellow, Professor Emeritus at University Politehnica Timisoara, Romania has taught, did research and published extensively papers and books (monographs and textbooks) over more than 45 years, related to rotary and linear electric motor/generator variable speed drives and MAGLEVS. He was a visiting Professor in USA, UK for more than 5 years since 1973 to present.

He was granted 4 IEEE best paper Awards, has been a member of IEEE IAS, IE MEC and IDC since 1992, was the guest editor of numerous special sections in IEEE Trans, vol. IE, IA, delivered keynote addresses at quite a few IEEE sponsored International Conferences, participated in IEEE Conference tutorials, is since 2008 an IEEE IAS distinguished lecturer (with lecture in USA, Brasil, S. Korea, Denmark, Italy, etc.). He held periodic intensive graduate courses for Academia and Industry in USA and Denmark in the last 20 years.

About the Series

Electric Power Engineering Series

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC009060
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TEC016000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Design / General
TEC031020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical