Induction Machines Handbook: Transients, Control Principles, Design and Testing, 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Induction Machines Handbook

Transients, Control Principles, Design and Testing, 3rd Edition

By Ion Boldea

CRC Press

472 pages | 342 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780367466183
pub: 2020-06-02
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Description

Induction Machines Handbook: Transients, Control Principles, Design and Testing presents a practical up to date treatment of intricate issues with induction machine (IM) required for design and testing both in rather constant and variable speed (with power electronics) drives. It contains ready to use in industrial design and testing knowledge with numerous case studies to facilitate thorough assimilation of new knowledge.

Fully revised and amply updated to add new knowledge of last decade this third edition added special sections on:

• Multiphase IM models for transients

• Double – fed IMs models for transients

• Cage – rotor synchronized reluctance motors

• Cage – rotor PM synchronous motor

• Transient operation of self-excited induction generator

• Brushless doubly-fed induction motor/generators

• Doubly fed induction generators with d.c. output

• Linear induction motor control with end effect

• Recent trends in IM testing with power electronics

• Cage PM rotor line-start IM testing

• Linear induction motor (LIM) testing

This up to date book that treats in detail the transients, control principles, design and testing of various IMs for line-start and variable speed applications in various topologies, with numerous case studies should be of direct assistance to Academia and Industry in conceiving, designing, fabricating and testing IMs for the future of various industries, from home appliances, through robotics, e-transport and renewable energy conversion.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1

INDUCTION MACHINE TRANSIENTS

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The phase coordinate model

1.3 The complex variable model

1.4 Steady state by the complex variable model

1.5 Equivalent circuits for drives

1.6 Electrical transients with flux linkages as variables

1.7 Including magnetic saturation in the space phasor model

1.8 Saturation and core loss inclusion into the state–space model [7]

1.9 Reduced order models

1.9.1 Neglecting stator transients

1.9.2 Considering leakage saturation

1.9.3 Large machines: torsional torque

1.10 The sudden short-circuit at terminals

1.11 Most severe transients (so far)

1.12 The abc–dq model for PWM inverter fed IMs

1.13 First order models of IMs for steady-state stability in power systems

1.14 Multimachine transients

1.15 Subsynchronous resonance (SSR)

1.16 The m/Nr actual winding modelling for transients

1.17 Multiphase induction machines models for transients

a.The six phase machine

b.The five phase machine

1.18 Doubly – fed induction machine models for transients

1.19 Cage – rotor synchronized reluctance motors

1.20 Cage rotor PM synchronous motors

1.21 Summary

1.22 References

CHAPTER 2

SINGLE-PHASE IM TRANSIENTS

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The d-q model performance in stator coordinates

2.3 Starting transients

2.4 The multiple reference model for transients

2.5 Including the space harmonics

2.6 Summary

2.7 References

CHAPTER 3

SUPER-HIGH FREQUENCY MODELS AND BEHAVIOUR OF IMS

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Three high frequency operation impedances

3.3 The differential impedance

3.4 Neutral and common mode impedance models

3.5 The super-high frequency distributed equivalent circuit

3.6 Bearing currents caused by pwm inverters

3.7 Ways to reduce PWM inverter bearing currents

3.8 Summary

3.9 References

CHAPTER 4

MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Typical load shaft torque/speed envelopes

4.3 Derating due to voltage time harmonics

4.4 Voltage and frequency variation

4.5 Specifying Induction motors for constant V and f

4.6 Matching IMs to variable speed/torque loads

4.7 Design factors

4.8 Design features

4.9 The output coefficient design concept

4.10 The rotor tangential stress design concept

4.11 Summary

4.12 References

CHAPTER 5

IM DESIGN BELOW 100KW AND CONSTANT V AND f (SIZE YOUR OWN IM)

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Design specifications by example

5.3 The algorithm

5.4 Main dimensions of stator core

5.5 The stator winding

5.6 Stator slot sizing

5.7 Rotor slots

5.8 The magnetisation current

5.9 Resistances and inductances

5.10 Losses and efficiency

5.11 Operation characteristics

5.12 Temperature rise

5.13 Summary

5.14 References

CHAPTER 6

INDUCTION MOTOR DESIGN ABOVE 100KW AND CONSTANT V AND f (SIZE YOUR OWN IM)

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Medium voltage stator design

6.3 Low voltage stator design

6.4 Deep bar cage rotor design

6.5 Double cage rotor design

6.6 Wound rotor design

6.7 IM with wound rotor-performance computation

6.8 Summary

6.9 References

CHAPTER 7

INDUCTION MACHINE DESIGN FOR VARIABLE SPEED

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Power and voltage derating

7.3 Reducing the skin effect in windings

7.4 Torque pulsations reduction

7.5 Increasing efficiency

7.6 Increasing the breakdown torque

7.7 Wide constant power speed range via voltage management

7.8 Design for high and super-high speed applications

7.8.1 Electromagnetic limitations

7.8.2 Rotor cooling limitations

7.8.3 Rotor mechanical strength

7.8.4 The solid iron rotor

7.8.5. 21 kW, 47,000 rpm, 94% efficiency with laminated rotor [11]

7.9 Sample design approach for wide constant power speed range

7.10 Summary

7.11 References

CHAPTER 8

OPTIMISATION DESIGN ISSUES

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Essential optimisation design methods

8.3 The augmented Lagrangian multiplier method (ALMM)

8.4 Sequential unconstrained minimisation

8.5 Modified Hooke-Jeeves method

8.6 Genetic algorithms

8.6.1 Reproduction (evolution and selection)

8.6.2 Crossover

8.6.3 Mutation

8.6.4 GA performance indices

8.7 Summary

8.8 References

CHAPTER 9

SINGLE-PHASE IM DESIGN

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Sizing the stator magnetic circuit

9.3 Sizing the rotor magnetic circuit

9.4 Sizing the stator windings

9.5 Resistances and leakage reactances

9.6 The magnetization reactance xmm

9.7 The starting torque and current

9.8 Steady state performance around rated power

9.9 Guidelines for a good design

9.10 Optimization design issues

9.11 Two speed PM split-phase-capacitor induction/synchronous motor [34]

9.11.2 Pole-changing and using permanent magnets

9.11.2 The chosen geometry

9.11.3 Experimental results

9.11.4 Theoretical characterization: steady state model and optimal design

9.11.5 Steady state model

9.11.6 Optimal design

9.11.7 2D FEM investigations

9.11.8 Proposed circuit model for transients and simulation results

9.11.9 Conclusion

9.12 Summary

9.13 References

CHAPTER 10

THREE PHASE INDUCTION GENERATORS

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG) modelling

10.3 Steady state performance of SEIG

10.4 The second order slip equation model for steady state

10.5 Steady state characteristics of SEIG for given speed and capacitor

10.6 Parameter sensitivity in SEIG analysis

10.7 Pole changing SEIGs

10.8 Unbalanced steady state operation of SEIG

10.8.1 The delta-connected SEIG

10.8.2 Star-connected SEIG

10.8.3 Two phases open

10.9 Transient operation of SEIG

10.10 SEIG transients with induction motor load

10.11 Parallel operation of SEIGs

10.12 The doubly-fed IG (DFIG) connected to the grid

10.12.1 Basic equations

10.12.2 Steady state operation

10.13 DFIG space-phasor modeling for transients and control

10.14 Reactive – active power capability of DFIG

10.14. Standalone DFIGs

10.15 Dual stator winding cage and nested cage rotor induction generators

10.16 DFIG with diode rectified output

10.17 Summary

10.14 References

CHAPTER 11

SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION GENERATORS

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Steady state model and performance

11.3 The d-q model for transients

11.4 Expanding the operation range with power electronics

11.5 Summary

11.6 References

CHAPTER 12

LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Classifications and basic topologies

12.3 Primary windings

12.4 Transverse edge effect in double – sided LIM

12.5 Tranverse edge effect in single - sided LIM

12.6 A technical theory of LIM longitudinal end effects

12.7 Longitudinal end – effect waves and consequences

12.8 Secondary power factor and efficiency

12.9 The optimum goodness factor

12.10 Linear flat induction actuators (no longitudinal end effect)

12.11 Tubular LIAs

12.12 Short – secondary double – sided LIAs

12.13 Linear induction motors for urban transportation

12.14 Transients and control of LIMs

12.15 LIM control with dynamic longitudinal end effect

12.16 Electromagnetic induction launchers

12.18 Summary

12.17 References

CHAPTER 13

TESTING OF THREE-PHASE IMs

13.1 Loss segregation tests

13.1.1 The no load motor test

13.1.2 Stray losses from no-load overvoltage test

13.1.3 Stray load losses from the reverse rotation test

13.1.4 The stall rotor test

13.1.5 No-load and stall rotor tests with PWM converter supply

13.1.6 Loss measurement by calorimetric methods

13.2 Efficiency measurements

13.2.1 IEEE Standard 112–1996

13.2.2 IEC standard 34–2

13.2.3 Efficiency test comparisons

13.2.4 The motor/generator slip efficiency method [13]

13.2.5 The PWM mixed frequency temperature rise and efficiency tests (artificial loading)

13.3 The temperature-rise test via forward shortcircuit (FSC) method [17]

13.4 Parameter estimation tests

13.4.1 Parameter calculation from no-load and standstill tests

13.4.2 The two frequency standstill test

13.4.3 Parameters from catalogue data

13.4.4 Standstill frequency response method

13.4.5 The general regression method for parameters estimation

13.4.6 Large IM inertia and parameters from direct starting acceleration and deceleration data

13.5 Noise and vibration measurements: from no load to load

13.5.1 When on-load noise tests are necessary?

13.5.2 How to measure the noise on-load

13.6 Recent trends in IM testing

13.7 Cage PM-rotor line start IM testing

13.8 Linear induction motor (LIM) testing

13.9 Summary

13.10 References

CHAPTER 14

SINGLE-PHASE IM TESTING

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Loss segregation in split phase and capacitor start IMs

14.3 The case of closed rotor slots

14.4 Loss segregation in permanent capacitor IMs

14.5 Speed (slip) measurements

14.6 Load testing

14.7 Complete torque-speed curve measurements

14.8 Summary

14.9 References

About the Author

Ion Boldea, IEEE Life Fellow, Professor Emeritus at University Politehnica Timisoara, Romania has taught, did research and published extensively papers and books (monographs and textbooks) over more than 45 years, related to rotary and linear electric motor/generator variable speed drives and MAGLEVS. He was a visiting Professor in USA, UK for more than 5 years since 1973 to present.

He was granted 4 IEEE best paper Awards, has been a member of IEEE IAS, IE MEC and IDC since 1992, was the guest editor of numerous special sections in IEEE Trans, vol. IE, IA, delivered keynote addresses at quite a few IEEE sponsored International Conferences, participated in IEEE Conference tutorials, is since 2008 an IEEE IAS distinguished lecturer (with lecture in USA, Brasil, S. Korea, Denmark, Italy, etc.). He held periodic intensive graduate courses for Academia and Industry in USA and Denmark in the last 20 years.

He was a general chair of 10 bianual IEEE sponsored OPTIM International Conferences (www.info-optim.ro) and is the founding and current Chief Editor since the year 2000, of the International – only Journal of Electrical Engineering “www.jee.ro”.

Full member of Romanian Academy, he received the “Nicola Tesla IEEE-2015 Award” for contributions to the development of rotary and linear electric motor/generator drives and Maglevs modeling, design, testing and control in industrial applications.

About the Series

Electric Power Engineering Series

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical