Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides

1st Edition

By N. K. Mathur

CRC Press

187 pages | 9 B/W Illus.

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Quite possibly the first comprehensive text on galactomannans, Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides compiles information on their industrial uses in the form of gums including locust bean, guar, tara, fenugreek, cassia-tara, and Sesbania-bisipinasa varieties. The book describes how galactomannans are currently produced commercially and how they have become industrial commodities. It provides a simple and clear introduction to these vital substances, it compares their various sources.


  • General chapters on carbohydrates, hydrocolloids and associated rheology, interactions of galactomannans, and derivatization of polysaccharides
  • A brief history of each product gum, cultivation of the plant sources, seed, habitat, chemical structure, functional properties, manufacturing processes, and applications
  • Special focus on the most representative galactomannans: guar and locust bean gums

An in-depth compilation of industrial galactomannans information, this book is designed for the manufacturers, traders, and end users of galactomannans, as well as technologists in polysaccharides-related industries and scientists and academics interested in carbohydrates.

Table of Contents

General Introduction to Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates, the Primary Products of Photosynthesis

Relative Abundance of Common Carbohydrates

Classification of Carbohydrates

Photosynthesis of Carbohydrates

Conformation of Polysaccharides

Functions of Polysaccharides

Further Readings

Galactomannan Polysaccharides


Biological Functions of Galactomannans and Their Classification

Biosynthetic Route for the Formation of Galactomannan Polysaccharides in Plants

Galactomannan-Bearing Plants

General Structural Features of Legume Pods and Seeds

Commercial Production of Galactomannans

General Chemical Structural Features of Galactomannan Gums


Commercial Need of Galactomannans Having Different Functional Properties

Future Prospects

Hydrocolloids or Gums

Defining a Colloidal System, Polymeric and Nonpolymeric Colloids

Polymeric Colloidal Systems and the Size of Colloidal Particles

Reversible and Irreversible Colloidal Systems: Hydrocolloids

Chemical Structure of Polysaccharide Hydrocolloids

Polydispersibility and Conformation of Hydrocolloids

Functional Properties of Hydrocolloids and Their Structure–Function Correlation

Structure–Solubility Relationship in Hydrocolloids

Interaction of Hydrocolloids and Water

Binding of Molecular Clusters of Water by Hydrocolloids

Gels as Colloidal Systems and Gel Forming Hydrocolloids

Synergy among Hydrocolloids

Emulsification by Hydrocolloids

Applications of Galactomannan Hydrocolloids in Food and Nonfood Industries

Interactions of Galactomannans


Types of Interactions of Galactomannans

Configurational Differences between Glucose Polymers and Galactomannan Polymers

Hydrogen Bonding Interactions in Carbohydrates

Synergic Increase in Viscosity and Gelling of Galactomannans with Other Polysaccharides

Super Entanglement of Galactomannan

High Surfactant Activity of Fenugreek Galactomannan

Adsorption of Galactomannans on Hydrophilic Solids: Applications in the Paper Industry

Galactomannans As a Depressant/Flocculent in Nonferrous Mineral Beneficiation

Modulation of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

Formation of Fused, Five-Member Ring by Cis-Pair of Hydroxyl Groups in Galactomannans

Interaction with Cross-Linking Agents and Its Applications

Cross-Linking with Transition Metal Ions

Interaction with Racemic Mixtures Involving Chiral-Selective Interactions of Galactomannans

Moisturizing Action and Gelling of Glucomannan Polysaccharide in Aloe vera Plant

Rheology of Hydrocolloids


Rheology of Hydrocolloid Sols

Viscosity Defined

Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids: Pseudoplasticity

Thixotropic Fluids

Hydration and Solubility of Polysaccharides

Dependence of Viscosity of Polymeric Molecules on Their Size, Shape, and Conformation

Effect of Charge on the Viscosity of Linear Polymer

Gel Formation and Viscoelasticity

Rheology Measuring Instruments and Methodology

Derivatization of Polysaccharides


Difference between the Whole Seed Powder and an Industrial Polysaccharide

Need for Modification or Derivatization of Polysaccharides

Polysaccharide Derivatives

Approval of Derivatized Polysaccharides as Food Additives

Production of Galactomannan Derivatives

Reactivity of Various Hydroxyl Groups of a Polysaccharide during a Derivatization Reaction

Degree of Substitution and Molecular Substitution

Why Was Derivatization Technology Developed?

Derivatization Using Gum Powder (Carboxymethylation)

Derivatization Using Guar Split

Polysaccharide Derivatives Currently Being Manufactured and Patented

Common Derivatizing Reagents and Reactions

Determination of Degree of Substitution

Typical Methods for Determination of DS

Preparation of Common Derivatizing Reagents

Guar Gum: The Premium Galactomannan

Introduction and Transdomestication of Guar Crop

Guar Seed As a Source of an Industrial Galactomannan Gum

Development of Guar Crop As the Source of an Industrial Galactomannan

Estimates of Guar Gum Production and Its Consumption

General Structural Features of Guar Galactomannan

Guar Gum or Guaran: A Galactomannan Polysaccharide

Development of Guar Seed Processing Technology in India

Newer Developments and Export of Processed Guar Products from India

Guar Crop Agronomy and Economics

Guar Plant

Marketing and Export

Biotechnological Aspects

Nutritional Aspects of Guar Seed Protein

Chemical and Structural Studies of Galactomannans

Fine Structure of Guar Galactomannan

Some Physicochemical Properties of Guar Gum

Manufacture of Guar Gum from Seed

Production of Guar Split

Production of Guar Gum Powder from Guar Splits

Modified Guar Gum Products

Guar Gum Derivatives

Testing and Quality Control of Guar Gum Products

Rheology of Guar Gum Pastes

Factors Influencing Viscosity of Guar Gum Solutions

Super Entanglement of Guar Galactomannan Molecules

Solubility and Hydration Rate of Guar Gum

Specific Interactions of Mannan Chain in Guar Gum and Its Applications

Uses and Applications of Guar Gum

Locust Bean Gum, or Carob Gum

Historical Introduction

Carob Tree

Carob Seed, the Traditional Source of a Galactomannan Gum

Carob Gum or Locust Bean Gum

Agronomy of Carob Tree

Regional Considerations

Important Carob Plantation Regions in the world

Manufacturing of Locust Bean Gum

Flow Sheet Showing Various Steps of Manufacturing LBG

Potential Amounts of Marketable LBG and Price Variation

Functional Properties of LBG

Rheology of LBG

Mechanism of Binary Gel Formation with LBG

Specific Structural Features of LBG

Fine Structure of LBG

Molecular Conformation of LBG

Solubility Behavior of Commercial LBG

Preparation of LBG Solution or Paste and Structure–Solubility Correlation

Synergism of Viscosity and Binary Gel Formation

Binary Gelling Substitutes of Locust Bean Gum

Substitutes for Locust Bean Gum

Cross-Linking Reactions and Interactions of LBG with Other Polysaccharides

Modifications and Derivatization of LBG

Applications and Uses of LBG

Fenugreek Gum: The New Food Galactomannan


Factors That Influence Commercialization of Potential Polysaccharide Gums

Fenugreek Galactomannan As an Emerging Industrial Polysaccharide

Fenugreek Crop

Composition of Fenugreek Seed

Manufacturing of Fenugreek Galactomannan Gum

Dry versus Wet Methods of Extraction of Seed Galactomannans

Need to Adopt Dry Processing for Commercial Manufacturing Fenugreek Gum

Chemical Structure of Fenugreek Galactomannan

Conformation of Fenugreek Galactomannan

Physical Properties and Rheology of Fenugreek Gum

Surface Activity and Emulsifying Property of Fenugreek Gum

Medicinal and Other Uses of Fenugreek Gum

Tara Gum: An Exclusive Food Additive with Limited Production


Tara Tree

Tara Gum

Structural Features of Tara Gum

Manufacture of Tara Gum

Applications of Tara Gum

Can India Develop an Equivalent of Tara Gum from Cassia fistula Gum?

Cassia tora Gum: An Emerging Commercial Galactomannan


Commercially Produced Galactomannan Gums

Chemical Structure of Cassia tora Gum

Dependence of the Functional Properties of Galactomannans on Their M:G Ratio

Gelling Gums

Mechanism of Binary Gelling

Common Toxic Constituents in Legume Seeds

Anthraquinone Pigments in Legume Seeds

Cassia tora Crop

Cassia tora Seed

Cassia tora Gum and Its Structure

Rheology of Cassia tora Gum

GRAS Specification and E Numbers for Food Additives

Present Status of CT Gum

Miscellaneous, Less Common Galactomannans and Glucomannans


Cassia fistula Tree

Cassia fistula Seed Gum: Need to Explore Production and Commercialization

Extraction of Cassia fistula Seed Gum: Dry Grinding and Wet Extraction Methods

Functional Properties of Cassia fistula Gum

Structural Features of Cassia fistula Galactomannan

Why Explore and Commercialize Cassia fistula Gum?

What Can Be the Possible Uses of Cassia fistula Gum?

Galactomannan from Pods of Prosopis juliflora

Glucomannan Polysaccharides

Konjak Glucomannan

Uses and Applications of Konjak Glucomannan

Aloe vera Glucomannan

Aloe vera Glucomannan, Gel or Fluid

About the Author

The author (Dr. N.K.Mathur) of this book retired as Chairman and Professor, Department of Chemistry, JNV. University at Jodhpur-3, India. Dr. Mathur has carried extensive research in varied fields of chemistry, particularly on polysaccharides. He has worked as a consultant and adviser for galactomannan industries. He has helped in "Human resource development" and carried "Industrial research’ on polysaccharides. He has visited several countries world-over, and lectured in seminars/ symposium. He has authored over one hundred research papers, reviews and science article and international monographs.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Organic