Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides  book cover
1st Edition

Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides

ISBN 9781138114784
Published June 14, 2017 by CRC Press
188 Pages 9 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Quite possibly the first comprehensive text on galactomannans, Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides compiles information on their industrial uses in the form of gums including locust bean, guar, tara, fenugreek, cassia-tara, and Sesbania-bisipinasa varieties. The book describes how galactomannans are currently produced commercially and how they have become industrial commodities. It provides a simple and clear introduction to these vital substances, it compares their various sources.


  • General chapters on carbohydrates, hydrocolloids and associated rheology, interactions of galactomannans, and derivatization of polysaccharides
  • A brief history of each product gum, cultivation of the plant sources, seed, habitat, chemical structure, functional properties, manufacturing processes, and applications
  • Special focus on the most representative galactomannans: guar and locust bean gums

An in-depth compilation of industrial galactomannans information, this book is designed for the manufacturers, traders, and end users of galactomannans, as well as technologists in polysaccharides-related industries and scientists and academics interested in carbohydrates.

Table of Contents

General Introduction to Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates, the Primary Products of Photosynthesis
Relative Abundance of Common Carbohydrates
Classification of Carbohydrates
Photosynthesis of Carbohydrates
Conformation of Polysaccharides
Functions of Polysaccharides
Further Readings

Galactomannan Polysaccharides
Biological Functions of Galactomannans and Their Classification
Biosynthetic Route for the Formation of Galactomannan Polysaccharides in Plants
Galactomannan-Bearing Plants
General Structural Features of Legume Pods and Seeds
Commercial Production of Galactomannans
General Chemical Structural Features of Galactomannan Gums
Commercial Need of Galactomannans Having Different Functional Properties
Future Prospects

Hydrocolloids or Gums
Defining a Colloidal System, Polymeric and Nonpolymeric Colloids
Polymeric Colloidal Systems and the Size of Colloidal Particles
Reversible and Irreversible Colloidal Systems: Hydrocolloids
Chemical Structure of Polysaccharide Hydrocolloids
Polydispersibility and Conformation of Hydrocolloids
Functional Properties of Hydrocolloids and Their Structure–Function Correlation
Structure–Solubility Relationship in Hydrocolloids
Interaction of Hydrocolloids and Water
Binding of Molecular Clusters of Water by Hydrocolloids
Gels as Colloidal Systems and Gel Forming Hydrocolloids
Synergy among Hydrocolloids
Emulsification by Hydrocolloids
Applications of Galactomannan Hydrocolloids in Food and Nonfood Industries

Interactions of Galactomannans
Types of Interactions of Galactomannans
Configurational Differences between Glucose Polymers and Galactomannan Polymers
Hydrogen Bonding Interactions in Carbohydrates
Synergic Increase in Viscosity and Gelling of Galactomannans with Other Polysaccharides
Super Entanglement of Galactomannan
High Surfactant Activity of Fenugreek Galactomannan
Adsorption of Galactomannans on Hydrophilic Solids: Applications in the Paper Industry
Galactomannans As a Depressant/Flocculent in Nonferrous Mineral Beneficiation
Modulation of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism
Formation of Fused, Five-Member Ring by Cis-Pair of Hydroxyl Groups in Galactomannans
Interaction with Cross-Linking Agents and Its Applications
Cross-Linking with Transition Metal Ions
Interaction with Racemic Mixtures Involving Chiral-Selective Interactions of Galactomannans
Moisturizing Action and Gelling of Glucomannan Polysaccharide in Aloe vera Plant

Rheology of Hydrocolloids
Rheology of Hydrocolloid Sols
Viscosity Defined
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids: Pseudoplasticity
Thixotropic Fluids
Hydration and Solubility of Polysaccharides
Dependence of Viscosity of Polymeric Molecules on Their Size, Shape, and Conformation
Effect of Charge on the Viscosity of Linear Polymer
Gel Formation and Viscoelasticity
Rheology Measuring Instruments and Methodology

Derivatization of Polysaccharides
Difference between the Whole Seed Powder and an Industrial Polysaccharide
Need for Modification or Derivatization of Polysaccharides
Polysaccharide Derivatives
Approval of Derivatized Polysaccharides as Food Additives
Production of Galactomannan Derivatives
Reactivity of Various Hydroxyl Groups of a Polysaccharide during a Derivatization Reaction
Degree of Substitution and Molecular Substitution
Why Was Derivatization Technology Developed?
Derivatization Using Gum Powder (Carboxymethylation)
Derivatization Using Guar Split
Polysaccharide Derivatives Currently Being Manufactured and Patented
Common Derivatizing Reagents and Reactions
Determination of Degree of Substitution
Typical Methods for Determination of DS
Preparation of Common Derivatizing Reagents

Guar Gum: The Premium Galactomannan
Introduction and Transdomestication of Guar Crop
Guar Seed As a Source of an Industrial Galactomannan Gum
Development of Guar Crop As the Source of an Industrial Galactomannan
Estimates of Guar Gum Production and Its Consumption
General Structural Features of Guar Galactomannan
Guar Gum or Guaran: A Galactomannan Polysaccharide
Development of Guar Seed Processing Technology in India
Newer Developments and Export of Processed Guar Products from India
Guar Crop Agronomy and Economics
Guar Plant
Marketing and Export
Biotechnological Aspects
Nutritional Aspects of Guar Seed Protein
Chemical and Structural Studies of Galactomannans
Fine Structure of Guar Galactomannan
Some Physicochemical Properties of Guar Gum
Manufacture of Guar Gum from Seed
Production of Guar Split
Production of Guar Gum Powder from Guar Splits
Modified Guar Gum Products
Guar Gum Derivatives
Testing and Quality Control of Guar Gum Products
Rheology of Guar Gum Pastes
Factors Influencing Viscosity of Guar Gum Solutions
Super Entanglement of Guar Galactomannan Molecules
Solubility and Hydration Rate of Guar Gum
Specific Interactions of Mannan Chain in Guar Gum and Its Applications
Uses and Applications of Guar Gum

Locust Bean Gum, or Carob Gum
Historical Introduction
Carob Tree
Carob Seed, the Traditional Source of a Galactomannan Gum
Carob Gum or Locust Bean Gum
Agronomy of Carob Tree
Regional Considerations
Important Carob Plantation Regions in the world
Manufacturing of Locust Bean Gum
Flow Sheet Showing Various Steps of Manufacturing LBG
Potential Amounts of Marketable LBG and Price Variation
Functional Properties of LBG
Rheology of LBG
Mechanism of Binary Gel Formation with LBG
Specific Structural Features of LBG
Fine Structure of LBG
Molecular Conformation of LBG
Solubility Behavior of Commercial LBG
Preparation of LBG Solution or Paste and Structure–Solubility Correlation
Synergism of Viscosity and Binary Gel Formation
Binary Gelling Substitutes of Locust Bean Gum
Substitutes for Locust Bean Gum
Cross-Linking Reactions and Interactions of LBG with Other Polysaccharides
Modifications and Derivatization of LBG
Applications and Uses of LBG

Fenugreek Gum: The New Food Galactomannan
Factors That Influence Commercialization of Potential Polysaccharide Gums
Fenugreek Galactomannan As an Emerging Industrial Polysaccharide
Fenugreek Crop
Composition of Fenugreek Seed
Manufacturing of Fenugreek Galactomannan Gum
Dry versus Wet Methods of Extraction of Seed Galactomannans
Need to Adopt Dry Processing for Commercial Manufacturing Fenugreek Gum
Chemical Structure of Fenugreek Galactomannan
Conformation of Fenugreek Galactomannan
Physical Properties and Rheology of Fenugreek Gum
Surface Activity and Emulsifying Property of Fenugreek Gum
Medicinal and Other Uses of Fenugreek Gum

Tara Gum: An Exclusive Food Additive with Limited Production
Tara Tree
Tara Gum
Structural Features of Tara Gum
Manufacture of Tara Gum
Applications of Tara Gum
Can India Develop an Equivalent of Tara Gum from Cassia fistula Gum?

Cassia tora Gum: An Emerging Commercial Galactomannan
Commercially Produced Galactomannan Gums
Chemical Structure of Cassia tora Gum
Dependence of the Functional Properties of Galactomannans on Their M:G Ratio
Gelling Gums
Mechanism of Binary Gelling
Common Toxic Constituents in Legume Seeds
Anthraquinone Pigments in Legume Seeds
Cassia tora Crop
Cassia tora Seed
Cassia tora Gum and Its Structure
Rheology of Cassia tora Gum
GRAS Specification and E Numbers for Food Additives
Present Status of CT Gum

Miscellaneous, Less Common Galactomannans and Glucomannans
Cassia fistula Tree
Cassia fistula Seed Gum: Need to Explore Production and Commercialization
Extraction of Cassia fistula Seed Gum: Dry Grinding and Wet Extraction Methods
Functional Properties of Cassia fistula Gum
Structural Features of Cassia fistula Galactomannan
Why Explore and Commercialize Cassia fistula Gum?
What Can Be the Possible Uses of Cassia fistula Gum?
Galactomannan from Pods of Prosopis juliflora
Glucomannan Polysaccharides
Konjak Glucomannan
Uses and Applications of Konjak Glucomannan
Aloe vera Glucomannan
Aloe vera Glucomannan, Gel or Fluid

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The author (Dr. N.K.Mathur) of this book retired as Chairman and Professor, Department of Chemistry, JNV. University at Jodhpur-3, India. Dr. Mathur has carried extensive research in varied fields of chemistry, particularly on polysaccharides. He has worked as a consultant and adviser for galactomannan industries. He has helped in "Human resource development" and carried "Industrial research’ on polysaccharides. He has visited several countries world-over, and lectured in seminars/ symposium. He has authored over one hundred research papers, reviews and science article and international monographs.