Industrial Gas Handbook: Gas Separation and Purification, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Industrial Gas Handbook

Gas Separation and Purification, 1st Edition

By Frank G. Kerry

CRC Press

550 pages | 188 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2007-02-22
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Description

Drawing on Frank G. Kerry’s more than 60 years of experience as a practicing engineer, the Industrial Gas Handbook: Gas Separation and Purification provides from-the-trenches advice that helps practicing engineers master and advance in the field. It offers detailed discussions and up-to-date approaches to process cycles for cryogenic separation of air, adsorption processes for front-end air purification, and related process control and instrumentation.

The book uses SI units in accordance with international industry and covers topics such as chronological development, industrial applications, air separation technologies, noble gases, front end purification systems, insulation, non-cryogenic separation, safety, cleaning for oxygen systems, economics, and product liquefaction, storage, and transportation.

No other book currently available takes the practical approach of this book — they are either outdated, too theoretical, or narrow in focus. In a clear and effective presentation, Industrial Gas Handbook: Gas Separation and Purification covers the principles and applications of industrial gas separation and purification.

Reviews

"The book has many excellent features in addition to being very well written and thoroughly covering the topic. The prose is well-supplemented with numerous tables, figures, and pictures of equipment that add tremendously to the understanding of the process being discussed."

– Gary F. Bennett, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Toledo, in Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan 2009, Vol. 161, No. 1

Table of Contents

Gas Separation and Purification of Industrial Gases

Introduction

Thermodynamics

Summary

References

Industrial Applications

Early Development of Industrial Liquefaction Systems

Heat Exchangers

Expansion Machines

Contemporary Liquefaction Cycles

Linde Cycle (Free Expansion through a Valve)

Theoretical Analysis of the Claude Cycle

Kapitza Cycle

Cascade Cycle

References

Further Reading

Air Separation Technology

Air Separation Overview

Theoretical Considerations of Fractionation

Practical Considerations

Operational Control

Product Recovery

Optimum Reflux

Distillation Equipment

Development of Low Oxygen-Purity Processes

Exergy

References

Rare (Noble) Gases

Helium

Neon

Argon

Krypton and Xenon

References

Further Reading

Front-End Purification Systems

Historical Background

Design of Current Front-End Purification Systems

Process Operation

Safety

Activated Aluminas for Front-End Purification Systems

References

Further Reading on the Subject of Adsorption and Carbon

Dioxide Build-up

Product Liquefaction, Storage, and Transportation

Background

Product Liquefaction

Cryogenic Storage Facilities

Cryogenic Pumps

Cryogenic Liquid Vaporizers

References

Insulation

General

Industrial Practices

Cold Box Design for Insulation

Externally Located Process and Transfer Piping

Insulation for Liquid Storage Tanks and Vessels

Vacuum Pumping Systems

References

For Further Study and Review

Special Gases

Hydrogen

Carbon Monoxide

High-Purity Nitrogen

Carbon Dioxide

Ozone

Methane

References

Further Reading on LNG

Noncryogenic Separations

Permeable Membrane Separation

Gas Separation by Adsorption

Nitrogen Recovery

References

Additional Reading on Noncryogenic Separations

Cryogenic Equipment, Materials, and Machinery

Heat Exchangers

Parameters of Design

Basic Principles

Typical Example for Designing Tubular Heat Exchangers

Brazed Aluminum Heat Exchangers

Effectiveness (c)

Operability

Efficiency (h)

Industrial Applications

Development of Brazed Aluminum Heat Exchangers

Vacuum Brazed Heat Exchangers

Mechanical Construction

Limitations

Operation and Maintenance

References

Further Reading

Expansion Machines

Expansion Machines

Reciprocating Expansion Engine

Radial Expansion Machines

Process Applications

Operational Factor (Air Separation Plants)

Refrigeration Availability

Process Technology

Expansion Turbine Efficiency

Expansion Turbine Losses

Measuring Efficiency

Various Expansion Turbine Systems

Mechanical Design Parameters

Instrumentation and Control

Spares

General Applications for Expansion Machines

References

Supplementary Reading

Compressors

Compressors

Definitions

Centrifugal Compressors

Axial–Centrifugal Compressors

Axial Compressors

Integrally Geared Centrifugal Compressors (API-Standard-672)

Product Oxygen Compressors (RIO)

High-Pressure Labyrinth Piston Compressor

Compressor Drivers

Operating Reliability versus Capital Costs of Compressors

Applicable Compressor Correction Factors

Variables

Summary of Factors

Application of Factors

References

Valves and Valve Stations for the Cryogenic Industry

General Design and Materials

General Design in Sizing

Sizing Parameters

Valve Categories

Nonmetallic Material

Manufacturers of Fluorinated Polymers

Warm End Switching Valves

Flow Control Check Valves

Cryogenic Process Valves (General)

Hand-Operated Cryogenic Valves

Process Control Valves

Product Flow Control Valves

Valve Connections

Insulation and Casing Designs for Cryogenic Valves

Liquid Purge Valves

Automatic Control of Cryogenic Valves

Cryogenic Liquid Storage Valves

Pressure Safety Relief Valves: Overview

Maintenance of Cryogenic Valves

Valve Stations: General

Valve Station Design

Destruction of a Pressure Reduction Station

Recommendations Applicable to Pressure-Reducing Stations

Further Reading

Instrumentation and Controls

Overview

General Requirements

Controls and Control System Philosophy

Minimum Instrumentation

Possible Specific Requirements of Owner or Operator

Safety

Safety Overview

Chemistry of Ignition, Combustion, and Explosion

Critical Areas in an Air Separation Plant

Purification Systems

Parameters for the Safe Design of a Process Cycle

General Design Procedures

Limits of Contaminants and Analysis

Rotating Machines and Other Equipment

Safe Practices

Summary

Safety in the Design of Dynamic Oxygen Systems

Causes of Combustion

Test Procedures and Results as Explained by de Jessey

The Following Recommendations Are in Order

Consideration of Dynamic Oxygen Conditions

References

For Further Reading

Cleaning for Oxygen Systems

Overview

General Considerations

Cleaning Requirements for Oxygen Systems

Equipment other than Piping

Cleaning Procedures for Carbon Steel Piping

Cleaning Procedures Available

Cleaning Agents

Preparation of Cleaning Agents

Drying Gases

Testing and Inspection Procedures

Ancillary Tools and Equipment

Labor Force

Protection and Storage

References

Economics

General Overview

Historical Background

Post–World War II Development

Economic Overview

Energy Costs

Investment Costs in General

Operating Costs

Maintenance

Marketing History of Industrial Gases

Challenging Market Conditions

Investing in a Project

Envoi

Appendix Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
TEC009010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TEC031030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels