Industrial Photoinitiators: A Technical Guide, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Industrial Photoinitiators

A Technical Guide, 1st Edition

By W. Arthur Green

CRC Press

302 pages | 301 B/W Illus.

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The use of photoinitiators in the UV curing process shows remarkable possibilities in myriad applications. Highlighting critical factors such as reactivity, cure speeds, and application details, Industrial Photoinitiators: A Technical Guide is a practical, accessible, industrially oriented text that explains the theory, describes the products, and outlines the practice in simple language for the novice and expert alike.

The basics of UV light

The book begins by examining the nature of UV light and the types of commercial UV lamps that are available. It discusses the light absorption process and the excited states that are produced by the photoinitiator prior to the production of radicals. Next, the book examines the structure of the photoinitiator and the mechanism by which a reactive species is formed, along with the deactivating processes that inhibit the various photophysical and photochemical steps that occur as radicals are produced.

Commercial photoinitiators

Providing a list of companies and suppliers, the author explores the distinct groups of commercial photoinitiators and the variations in their structure. He describes the factors that determine which photoinitiators should be chosen for a particular application and how the different types are used. He also explains the reasons why a cured coating may display yellowing and describes the use of stabilizers to reduce the yellowing effect.

Cationic curing

Exploring a small but growing area of interest in the UV curing industry, the book concludes by discussing cationic curing and examines the different scope of parameters and different chemistry involved. It also describes factors that affect the use of cationic photoinitiators.

Based on more than 30 years of experience working with photoinitiators, W. Arthur Green offers a unique resource that provides product developers and others working in industry with the practical information they need to fully understand the basics of this evolving field.

Table of Contents

Let there be light

The electromagnetic spectrum

The generation of UV energy

The light absorption process

UV safety and ozone

A little chemistry

Free radical chemistry

The chromophore and absorption of UV energy

Type I photoinitiators: Mechanism of the scission process

Type II photoinitiators: Mechanism of the abstraction process

The influence of molecular substitution on absorption and photoactivity


Diverse mechanisms: Variations on the Type I and Type II process

The thiol-ene photopolymerization

Academics unlimited

Triplet lifetimes and monomer quenching reactions

Modification of hydroxyacetophenones

Alkylaminoacetophenones and wavelength selection

Phosphine oxides: Reactivity and solvolytic stability

Benzophenone and thioxanthone triplet reactions

Substituted benzophenones

Substituted thioxanthones

Novel photoinitiators

Radical reactions

Commercial photoinitiators

Type I photoinitiators

Type II photoinitiators

Blends of photoinitiators

Migration and polymeric photoinitiators

Visible light curing

Water-based UV curing

Hydrogen donors

Factors affecting the use of photoinitiators

Matching the photoinitiator absorption to the UV source

Photoinitiators for UV LEDs

Oxygen inhibition

Film thickness, surface and depth cure, shrinkage and adhesion

Sensitization and synergy

The effect of pigments on the UV curing process

Photoproducts and the yellowing of coatings

Intrinsic color, photoyellowing, and oxidation products

The formation of photoproducts

Cationic chemistry

The light absorption process and the generation of acid

Epoxy polymerization and the dark reaction

Triarylsulphonium salts

Dialkylphenacylsulphonium salts

Diaryliodonium salts

Ferrocenium salts

Factors affecting the use of cationic photoinitiators

The influence of the anion

Photochemical radical decomposition of onium salts

Sensitization of the cationic photoinitiator

The influence of temperature on the polymerization

The effect of water on polymerization

Appendix A: Tables and absorbance graphs

Appendix B: Further information


About the Author

W. Arthur Green received his degree in industrial chemistry in 1964 and has more than 40 years of experience working with photoinitiators. Since his retirement, he has continued to work part-time in the UV curing industry as a technical advisor and still presents papers and takes part in training sessions for companies involved in photoinitiators.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Organic
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical