Infrared Spectroscopy: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Infrared Spectroscopy

1st Edition

By James M. Thompson

Pan Stanford

196 pages

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Hardback: 9789814774789
pub: 2018-02-01
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Description

It is estimated that there are about 10 million organic chemicals known, and about 100,000 new organic compounds are produced each year. Some of these new chemicals are made in the laboratory and some are isolated from natural products. The structural determination of these compounds is the job of the chemist. There are several instrumental techniques used to determine the structures of organic compounds. These include NMR, UV/visible, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Of all the instrumental techniques listed, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are the two most popular techniques, mainly because they tend to be less expensive and give us the most structural information.

This book is an introductory text designed to acquaint undergraduate and graduate students with the basic theory and interpretative techniques of infrared spectroscopy. Much of the material in this text has been used over a period of several years for teaching courses in materials characterization and chemical analysis. It presents the infrared spectra of the major classes of organic compounds and correlates the infrared bands (bond vibrations) of each spectrum with the structural features of the compound it represents. This has been done for hydrocarbons, organic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, anhydrides, phenols, amines, and amides. The text discusses the origin of the fragments, techniques, innovations, and applications in infrared spectroscopy. It is interspersed with many illustrations, examples, an adequate but not overwhelming bibliography, and problems for students. It will serve as a lecture text for a one-semester course in infrared spectroscopy or can be used to teach the infrared spectroscopy portion of a broader course in material characterization and chemical analysis.

Table of Contents

Some Fundamentals of Infrared Spectroscopy

Introduction

The Energy of Electromagnetic Radiation

Information That May Be Obtained from the Analysis of Infrared Spectra

Comparison Techniques

Fundamental Vibrations

Non-Fundamental Vibrations

Predicting the Number of Fundamental Vibrations

The Force Constant

Some Theoretical Concepts

Basic Sample Preparation

Other Sampling Techniques

Some Suggestions and Comments on the Interpretation of Infrared Spectra

The Analysis of Infrared Spectra

Hydrocarbons (Straight Chain)

Hydrocarbons (Branched Chain)

Hydrocarbons (Cyclic)

Alkenes

Alkynes

Ethers (Alkyl–Alkyl)

Ethers (Aryl–Alkyl)

Aliphatic Halides

Amines

Ketones and Aldehydes

Alcohols

Organic Acids

Acid Halides

Amides

Esters

Lactones

Anhydrides

Nitriles

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Salts of Carboxylic Acid

The Effects of Chelation on the Carbonyl Absorption

Phosphines, Phosphites, Phosphonates and Phosphates

Thioalcohols and Thiophenols

Silanes

Boranes

Sulfones, Sulfates, Sulfonic Acids (and Their Salts), Sulfites and Sulfoxides

Techniques, Innovations, and Applications in Infrared Spectroscopy

Advances in Infrared Spectroscopy

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

The Michelson Interferometer

The FTIR Microscope and Microsampling Techniques

Reflective Spectra

Specular or External Reflectance

Grazing Incidence Reflectance

Reflective–Absorption Spectra

Diffuse-Reflectance Spectra

Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)

Theory of the ATR Cell

Quantitative Infrared Analysis

Combined Thermogravimetric Analysis and FTIR (TG/FTIR)

The TG/FTIR Interface

GC/MS, GC/FTIR and GC/MS/FTIR

The GC/MS and GC/FTIR Interfaces

Problems in Infrared Spectroscopy

Appendix

About the Author

James M. Thompson is emeritus professor at the Department of Chemistry and former chair of the Department of Natural and Physical Sciences at Alabama A&M University. He taught organic chemistry and instrumental methods for many years at the university. He received his PhD in 1975 from the University of Delaware under the supervision of Dr. Richard F. Heck (recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2010). Prof. Thompson’s research interests are in organic chemistry, use of mass spectra, infrared spectra, C-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and structural determination of organic compounds. He performed research for NASA in the area of thermal gravimetric analysis for about 15 years and is a recipient of more than 50 awards and recognitions.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General