1st Edition

Infrared Spectroscopy

By James M. Thompson Copyright 2018
    210 Pages
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    It is estimated that there are about 10 million organic chemicals known, and about 100,000 new organic compounds are produced each year. Some of these new chemicals are made in the laboratory and some are isolated from natural products. The structural determination of these compounds is the job of the chemist. There are several instrumental techniques used to determine the structures of organic compounds. These include NMR, UV/visible, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Of all the instrumental techniques listed, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are the two most popular techniques, mainly because they tend to be less expensive and give us the most structural information.
    This book is an introductory text designed to acquaint undergraduate and graduate students with the basic theory and interpretative techniques of infrared spectroscopy. Much of the material in this text has been used over a period of several years for teaching courses in materials characterization and chemical analysis. It presents the infrared spectra of the major classes of organic compounds and correlates the infrared bands (bond vibrations) of each spectrum with the structural features of the compound it represents. This has been done for hydrocarbons, organic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, anhydrides, phenols, amines, and amides. The text discusses the origin of the fragments, techniques, innovations, and applications in infrared spectroscopy. It is interspersed with many illustrations, examples, an adequate but not overwhelming bibliography, and problems for students. It will serve as a lecture text for a one-semester course in infrared spectroscopy or can be used to teach the infrared spectroscopy portion of a broader course in material characterization and chemical analysis.

    Some Fundamentals of Infrared Spectroscopy
    The Energy of Electromagnetic Radiation
    Information That May Be Obtained from the Analysis of Infrared Spectra
    Comparison Techniques
    Fundamental Vibrations
    Non-Fundamental Vibrations
    Predicting the Number of Fundamental Vibrations
    The Force Constant
    Some Theoretical Concepts
    Basic Sample Preparation
    Other Sampling Techniques
    Some Suggestions and Comments on the Interpretation of Infrared Spectra

    The Analysis of Infrared Spectra
    Hydrocarbons (Straight Chain)
    Hydrocarbons (Branched Chain)
    Hydrocarbons (Cyclic)
    Ethers (Alkyl–Alkyl)
    Ethers (Aryl–Alkyl)
    Aliphatic Halides
    Ketones and Aldehydes
    Organic Acids
    Acid Halides
    Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    Salts of Carboxylic Acid
    The Effects of Chelation on the Carbonyl Absorption
    Phosphines, Phosphites, Phosphonates and Phosphates
    Thioalcohols and Thiophenols
    Sulfones, Sulfates, Sulfonic Acids (and Their Salts), Sulfites and Sulfoxides

    Techniques, Innovations, and Applications in Infrared Spectroscopy
    Advances in Infrared Spectroscopy
    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
    The Michelson Interferometer
    The FTIR Microscope and Microsampling Techniques
    Reflective Spectra
    Specular or External Reflectance
    Grazing Incidence Reflectance
    Reflective–Absorption Spectra
    Diffuse-Reflectance Spectra
    Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)
    Theory of the ATR Cell
    Quantitative Infrared Analysis
    Combined Thermogravimetric Analysis and FTIR (TG/FTIR)
    The TG/FTIR Interface
    The GC/MS and GC/FTIR Interfaces

    Problems in Infrared Spectroscopy



    James M. Thompson is emeritus professor at the Department of Chemistry and former chair of the Department of Natural and Physical Sciences at Alabama A&M University. He taught organic chemistry and instrumental methods for many years at the university. He received his PhD in 1975 from the University of Delaware under the supervision of Dr. Richard F. Heck (recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2010). Prof. Thompson’s research interests are in organic chemistry, use of mass spectra, infrared spectra, C-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and structural determination of organic compounds. He performed research for NASA in the area of thermal gravimetric analysis for about 15 years and is a recipient of more than 50 awards and recognitions.