1st Edition

Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering (Two-Volume Set)

    1320 Pages 1090 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Winner of the Inaugural Journal of Bridge Structures’ Book Award

    Continually increasing demands on infrastructure mean that maintenance and renewal require timely, appropriate action that maximizes benefits while minimizing cost. To be as well informed as possible, decision-makers must have an optimal understanding of an infrastructure’s condition—what it is now, and what it is expected to be in the future. Written by two respected engineers, Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering is presented in two corresponding volumes that integrate the decision making concept into theoretical and practical issues.

    The first volume, Theory and Components, includes:

    • An overview of the infrastructure health in civil engineering (IHCE) and associated theories
    • In-depth description of the four components of IHCE: measurements, structural identification, damage identification, and decision making
    • Discussion of how IHCE and asset management are applied
    • Exploration of analogies between structural and human health

    The second volume, Applications and Management, covers:

    • State-of-the-art practices and future directions
    • Use of probability and statistics in areas including structural modeling
    • Specific practical applications, including retrofitting and rehabilitation in response to earthquake damage, corrosion, fatigue, and bridge security
    • Use of IHCE for management and maintenance of different types of structures using pre-stressed and reinforced concrete, and fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs)
    • Numerous practical case studies, as well as coverage of the latest techniques in the use of sensors for damage detection and load testing

    This set comprises, perhaps for the first time, an invaluable integrated guide to the wide range of structural hazards—including scour, earthquakes, fatigue, corrosion, and damage to pre-stressed systems. It then lays out the optimized, cost-saving methods that will help readers meet safety specifications for new projects, as well as the aging infrastructure at great risk of failure.



    PART I: Overview and Theories of IHCE


    Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering (IHCE)

    General Concepts of Infrastructures Health

    History of Structural Health Efforts

    Need for Infrastructure Health Efforts

    Analogy with Human Health

    Structural Health: A New Field in Civil Engineering?

    Structural Health: Integration of Fields

    Horizontal Integration: Multihazards

    Vertical Integration: Multidisciplinary

    SHM and IHCE: a Quick Primer

    Challenges Ahead

    Appendix I: DHS Infrastructure Sectors (as of 2009)

    Elements of Structural Health in Civil Engineering (SHCE)

    SHCE: A New Field in Civil Engineering?

    SHCE: Baseball Analogy

    SHCE and DESIGN Paradigms

    NDT versus SHM

    Value of Information

    Lives and Deaths of Infrastructures


    Birth of Bridges

    Why Bridges Live?

    Why Bridges Fail/Die?

    Examples of Bridge Failures

    Appendix I: Count of Bridges in the United States by Construction Material


    Theories and Principles of IHCE


    General theory of Experimentation (GTE)

    Special Theory of Experimentation (STE)

    Theory of SHM Triangulation

    Duality Principle in SHM

    Scaling Principle in SHM

    Serendipity Principle in SHM


    PART II: Components of IHCE

    Sensors and Infrastructures Health


    Sensor Categorizations

    Basics of Sensor Behavior

    Sensor Measurements in SHM

    Emerging Technology: Fiber Optics Sensors

    Wireless Sensors

    Smart Structures

    Optimum Sensor Selection

    Optimum Sensor Location

    Step by Step Guide for Choosing Sensors

    Remote Sensing in SHM

    Structural Identification (STRID)


    STRID Processes

    Modal Identification Methods

    Parameter Identification (PI)

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

    Other Methods

    Modeling Techniques

    Scale Independent Methods (SIM)

    Case Studies

    Life Cycle Analysis and STRID

    Cost-Benefit Analysis of STRID

    Damage Identification (DMID)


    Damage Parameters

    STRID, DMID, and SHM

    NDT Techniques

    Acoustic Emission

    Vibration-based Methods

    Signal Processing and DMID

    Damage Identification in SHM

    Appendix: Lamb Waves

    Appendix: Dispersion Curves

    Appendix: Helmholtz Equation

    Appendix: Angular Spectrum Method

    Decision Making in IHCE


    Decision Making Process and Structural Health Components

    Probability and Statistics

    Traditional Theories of Decision Making



    Stochastic Models

    Structural Analysis in Decision Making

    Financial Considerations






    PART III: Applications



    Types and Causes of Scour

    Scour Mitigation Measures

    Bridge Health and Scour

    Case Studies

    Bridge Life Cycle Analysis and Scour Effects

    Decision Making and SCOUR

    Management Strategies for Scour Hazard

    Appendix: NBI System



    Bridge Components and Seismic Hazards

    SHM Components and Seismic Hazards

    Case Studies

    Decision Making and Earthquake Hazard

    General Engineering Paradigms, Earthquakes, and Structural Health

    Resilience of Infrastructures

    LCA and Earthquake Hazards

    Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures


    Corrosion: The problem

    Corrosion Monitoring

    Corrosion Mitigation Methods

    STRID and Corrosion Hazard

    Decision Making and Corrosion Hazard

    Case Studies

    Bridge Life Cycle Analysis and Corrosion Monitoring

    Appendix: Chloride Diffusion and Corrosion Initiation

    Pre-stressed Concrete Bridges


    Anatomy of PSC Bridges

    Damage to PSC Bridges

    Structural Identification

    Damage Detection

    Decision Making

    Case Studies

    LCA of PT-PS Systems



    NDT Treatment of Fatigue

    SHM Treatment of Fatigue

    Virtual Sensing Paradigm

    Step-by-Step Approach for Remaining Fatigue Life

    Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of a Truss Bridge with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Deck

    Estimating Fatigue Life of Bridge Components Using Measured Strains: Practical Application

    BLCA and Fatigue

    Dirlik Rainflow Empirical Solution

    Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Bridge Decks


    The Advent of FRP Bridge Decks

    Health of FRP Bridge Deck

    Decision Making and FRP Bridge Decks

    Case Studies

    LCA for FRP Bridge Decks

    Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Wrapping


    Physical and Theoretical Background

    NDT Methods for FRP Wrapping


    East Church Street Bridge

    Troy Bridge

    Congress Street Bridge

    Guide to SHM Usage in FRP Wrapping

    Decision Making Example: When to Retrofit with FRP Wrapping?

    LCA of FRP Wrapping

    Sources of Damage in FRP Laminates


    PART IV: Management of Infrastructure Health

    Load Testing


    General Considerations for Load Testing

    Categories of Load Tests

    Sensors, Instrumentations, Hardware, and Software

    STRID in Load Testing

    Damage Identification in Load Testing

    Decision Making in Load Testing

    Cost, Benefit, and LCA of Bridge Load Tests

    Monitoring and Load Testing of Court Street Bridge

    Load Testing for Bridge Rating: Route 22 Over Swamp River

    Bridge Management and Infrastructure Health


    Bridge Management Strategies and SHM





    Bridge Management Tools and SHM

    Life-Cycle Analysis and Infrastructure Health


    Bridge Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    Bridge Life Cycle Benefit Analysis

    Bridge Lifespan Analysis

    Interrelationship of BLCCA, BLCBA, and BLSA

    Use of BLCA in Decision Making

    SHM Role in BLCCA, BLCBA, and BLSA

    Generalized Approach to LCA

    Role of Structural Health Monitoring in Enhancing Bridge Security


    Concept of 4Ds

    Security-Specific Technology and SHM Utilization

    SHM-Specific Techniques and Bridge Security

    Decision Making: Prioritization

    Life Cycle Analysis

    Concluding Remarks



    Mohammed M. Ettouney

    "Written by two respected engineers … integrates the decision-making concept into theoretical and practical issues. … sets up the path, details, and needs for a new field in civil engineering: infrastructure health."
    Journal of Bridge Engineering, May/June 2012