The history of pathogens and vectors, unique symptoms of diseases and economic importance of important viral diseases have been dealt with in the introductory chapter of this book. While highlighting the role of arthropods, nematodes, and fungi; other agents of the spread of plant pathogens have also been included. Important aspects of insect vectors with direct bearing on transmission, i.e. vector identification, biology, feeding apparatus, and mechanism of spread including control of pathogens through vectors are covered comprehensively. As aphids and other hemipterous insects are major insect vectors, the book stresses on this order. There is a focus on the transmission of determinants under different categories of the transmission mechanism. The transmission determinant paradigm comprising coat protein and helper component has been expounded with recent cases. A brief description of new diseases at least one from each genus of plant viruses has been included in this compendium to elucidate the interaction of vector and virus. Phytoplasmal etiology of pathogens has been detailed separately on account of their importance. The transmission of plant viruses through insects with biting and chewing type of mouth parts has been discussed in detail as separate chapter. The latest research in the field of mites, nematodes, and fungi as vectors of plant viruses has been included. How the phytotoxemia is different from other crop disorders, has been critically explained with support from suitable and common examples of crop disorders. The book also highlights the effects of plant viruses on their vectors. An account of classification of plant viruses has also been given for better understanding of subject matter. Likewise, the information on the electron microscope along with its use has been included so as to define the procedure of examining sub-microscopic entities. The latest developments in the management of plant pathogens through vector management have been discussed with special reference to the use of biotechnology, crop protection, and plant resistance.
The book will be of value to the teachers and to researchers. It will also be useful for extension workers in managing crop disorders. Students and researchers of entomology, plant pathology, plant protection and virology disciplines will obtain the latest in the field, through this book.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Historical Background, Symptoms, Pathogens and Economic Importance. Modes of Spread of Plant Pathogens. Feeding Mechanism of Vectors and Plant Pathogens. APHIDS. Leaf Hoppers/Plant Hoppers/Tree Hoppers/Frog Hoppers/Psylla/ Mealy Bugs/Scale Insects. Whiteflies. Heteropterous Bugs and Thrips. Insect Vectors with Chewing Mouthparts. MITES. Nematodes. Fungi. Phytotoxemia. Plant Pathogens and Electron Microscope. Pathogen Effects and Ecological Factors. Vector-Virus Management Strategies.
Professor Nachhattar Singh Butter was born on October 13, 1948, in the small village of Bathinda district in the Punjab state of India. After completion of schooling from a rural village in 1967, joined Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, and did BSc (Ag) in 1971, MSc (Entomology) in 1973 and Ph.D. (Entomology) in 1976. Being a meritorious student, Dr. Butter was awarded merit scholarship both in Bachelor and Masters programs and Senior Fellowship, CSIR during Ph.D. The fellowship was later on converted into Post Doctorate Fellowship on the completion of a degree in Nov.1976 to work in the field of insect vectors. It continued up to Feb 1977 on joining of the post of Assistant professor.He continued to work till his promotion as Entomologist in July 1987. In March 1994 he joined as a professor.After serving as professor up to June 2006,he took over as Head, Department of Entomology and continued to discharge administrative duties till superannuation in Oct 2008. He developed Integrated Pest Management system for cotton crop in Punjab and Indian Society for Cotton Improvement, Mumbai, honored him with Hexamar Award, 1992 for outstanding research contributions in cotton. He guided nine post graduate students in Entomology and taught both under- and post- graduate courses in Entomology. He has published 77 research articles in journals of repute besides 200 popular articles, 22 presented papers in seminars /workshops. He has four books to his credit in addition to contributed chapters in books and laboratory manuals. Dr. Butter has delivered 44 Radio /TV talks and 200 lectures to farmers on important topics.He is instrumental in establishing plant clinic in PAU, the model of which was emulated throughout the country. Dr. Butter visited erstwhile USSR in 1987 to study Integrated Pest Management in cotton as a member of the 2-men delegation. For the outstanding contributions in research teaching and extension in agriculture, the State Govt awarded him Punjab Sarkar Parman Patra, 2002. Dr. Butter is a fellow of Entomological Society of India and The Indian Society for the Advancement of Insect Science.