Instrumental Methods in Metal Ion Speciation  book cover
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Instrumental Methods in Metal Ion Speciation





ISBN 9780367453800
Published December 2, 2019 by CRC Press
376 Pages 106 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The knowledge of metal ion speciation is essential for predicting the exact toxicities of metal ion species in the environment. Metal ions can exist in various oxidation states, each of which possesses different physical and chemical properties as well as exhibit varying toxicities. Often, toxicity data is unreliable because it is based on metal ion concentration measurements that fail to identify a dominant species either more or less harmful than the average. Instrumental Methods in Metal Ion Speciation provides analytical techniques and experimental methodologies for determining the concentration of the different physicochemical forms of metal ions in environmental and biological samples, leading to more accurate measurements of actual toxicity.

The authors introduce the principles of metal ion speciation and discuss important analytical techniques such as gas and liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and both electrochemical and radiochemical methods used to determine concentration and composition. They present a range of liquid chromatographic approaches, including capillary electrochromatography and high-performance, ion, ion pair, micellar electrokinetic, size exclusion, chiral, and supercritical fluid chromatographies for all metal ion species. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers the sources, distribution, toxicity, biotransformation, and biodegradation of each metal ions species as well as extraction methods, sample preparation, and experimental optimization techniques that can be useful in designing future experiments.

Instrumental Methods in Metal Ion Speciation is a unique and valuable source of reference for scientists, academics, and researchers involved in analytical, biological, pharmaceutical, and environmental chemistries, as well as material industries, geochemistry, agriculture, biotechnology, and occupational safety and regulations.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
Importance of the Environment
Environmental Pollutants
Metal Ions Speciation
Metal Ion Speciation and the Environment
Methods Of Metal Ion Speciation
Detection in Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis
METAL ION SPECIES: SOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION
Sources of Contamination
Distribution of Metal Ions
Mechanisms of Metal Ions Contamination
METAL ION SPECIES: TOXICITIES, BIOTRANSFORMATION, AND BIODEGRADATION
Modes of Bioactivity and Toxicities of Metal Ions
Toxicities of Metal Ions
Biotransformation of Metal Ions
Biodegradation of Metal Ions
Essentiality versus Toxicity of Metal Ions
SAMPLE PREPARATION
Sampling
Preservation
Filtration
Digestion/Homogenization
Extraction
Membrane Methods in Sample Preparation
Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Other Extraction Methods
Cleanup
Preconcentration
SPECIATION OF METAL IONS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Applications
Optimization of Metal Ion Speciation
Derivatization of Metal Ions
Mechanisms of Metal Ions Speciation
Errors and Problems in Metal Ions Speciation
SPECIATION OF METAL IONS BY REVERSED-PHASE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
Applications
Optimization of Metal Ion Speciation
Derivatization of Metal Ions
Mechanisms of Metal Ions Speciation
SPECIATION OF METAL IONS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY
Applications
Optimization of Metal Ion Speciation
Mechanisms of Metal Ions Speciation
SPECIATION OF METAL IONS BY ION-PAIR, MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC, SIZE EXCLUSION, CHIRAL, CAPILLARY ELECTRO-, AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS
Ion-Pair Chromatography
Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography
Size Exclusion Chromatography
Chiral Chromatography
Capillary Electrochromatography
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
Mechanisms
LC versus GC
SPECIATION OF METAL IONS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS
Application of Capillary Electrophoresis for the Speciation of Metal Ions
Optimization of the Speciation
Validation of the Methods
Effect of Interfering Ions
Mechanisms of Metal Ion Speciation
Capillary Electrophoresis versus Chromatography
SPECIATION OF METAL IONS BY SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS
UV-Visible Spectroscopy
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
Mass Spectrometry
X-Ray Spectroscopy
Miscellaneous Spectroscopic Methods
SPECIATION OF METAL IONS BY ELECTROCHEMICAL AND RADIOCHEMICAL METHODS
Electrochemical Methods
Radiochemical Methods
Miscellaneous Methods
PERSPECTIVES AND LEGISLATION OF METAL ION SPECIATION
The Future of Speciation
Risk Assessment and Legislation
Metal Ion Speciation and Legislation
International Scenario of Legislation
*Each Chapter contains a Conclusion and References

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Author(s)

Biography

Ali\, Imran; Aboul-Enein\, Hassan Y.

Reviews

“The book has been presented by well known scientists … presents very interesting material … The book as a whole will certainly be a useful source of information for numerous analytical chemists which are obliged to work in the timely important field of chemical analysis.”
— Adam Hulanicki, in Chem. Anal, Vol. 52, No. 157, 2007