Instrumentation Design Studies: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Instrumentation Design Studies

1st Edition

By Ernest Doebelin

CRC Press

725 pages | 457 B/W Illus.

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Description

Integrating physical modeling, mathematical analysis, and computer simulation, Instrumentation Design Studies explores a wide variety of specific and practical instrumentation design situations. The author uses MATLAB® and SIMULINK® for dynamic system simulation, Minitab® for statistical applications, and Mathcad for general engineering computations. Rather than consult the extensive manuals of these software packages, readers can access handy, sharply focused material in the appendices to assist in comprehension.

After introducing the techniques behind the design of experiments (DOE), the book discusses several technologies for implementing vibration isolation, the design of a high-accuracy pressure transducer, and the use of cold-wire thermometers for measuring rapidly fluctuating fluid temperatures. It then focuses on a basic piezoelectric actuator that provides translational motions up to about 1mm full scale with nanometer resolution, before covering instruments used to measure the viscosity of liquids as well as two special classes of microphones (infrasonic and ultrasonic) and their important specialized applications. The book also presents statistical tools, such as hypothesis testing and confidence intervals, for experiments; the design and applications of thrust stands for measuring vector forces and torques; and the analysis and simulation of a shock calibrator. It concludes with a discussion of how shock testing machines can help reduce or prevent mechanical failures.

Spanning system dynamics, measurement, and control, this book addresses the needs of practicing engineers working in instrumentation fields. It focuses on instruments for various applications, from geophysics to mechanical and aerospace engineering.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Statistical Design of Experiments: Experimental Modeling of a Cooling System for Electronic Equipment

Introduction

Basic Concepts

Mathematical Formulation

Full Factorial and Fractional Factorial Experiments

Run-Sequence Randomization

Validation Experiments

Example Experiment: Modeling an Electronics Cooling Process

Using Minitab to Design the Experiment and then Analyze the Results

Multiple Regression: A General Tool for Analyzing Experiment Data and Formulating Models

Vibration Isolation for Sensitive Instruments and Machines

Introduction

Passive Spring/Mass Isolators

Passive Air Spring Systems

Active Air Spring Systems

Low-Frequency Isolation Using Negative-Spring-Constant Devices

Active Electromechanical Vibration Isolation

Tuned Vibration Absorbers and Input-Shaping Methods

Design of a Vibrating Cylinder, High-Accuracy Pressure Transducer

Introduction

Basic Concept

Cylinder Natural Frequency Calculations

Use of an Unstable Feedback System to Maintain Continuous Oscillation

Simulation of the Complete System

Ultra-Precision Calibration/Measurement Using a 15-Term Calibration Equation, Built-in Temperature Compensation, and Microprocessor Data Reduction

A Fast ("Cold-Wire") Resistance Thermometer for Temperature Measurements in Fluids

Introduction

Circuitry and Wire Details

Estimating the Self-Heating Error

Estimating the Sensitivity to Desired and Spurious Inputs

Dynamic Response to Fluid Temperature Fluctuations

Use of Current Inputs for Dynamic Calibration

Electronic Considerations

Effect of Conduction Heat Transfer at the Wire Ends

Piezoelectric Actuation for Nanometer Motion Control

Introduction

Mechanical Considerations

Actuators, Sensors, and Mounting Considerations

Control System Design

Preliminary Design of a Viscosimeter

Introduction

Definition of Viscosity

Rotational Viscosimeters

Measurement of Torque

Dynamic Measurements

Velocity Servos to Drive the Outer Cylinder

Calibration

Corrections to the Simplified Theory

Non-Newtonian Fluids

The Concept of the Representative Radius

The Concept of Effective Length

Cylinder Design According to German Standards

Designing a Set of Cylinders

Temperature Effect on Viscosity

Temperature Control Methods

Uncertainty Analysis

Encoder Angular Position and Speed Measurement

Practical Significance of the Shear Rate

Fitting a Power-Law Model for a Non-Newtonian Fluid

Infrasonic and Ultrasonic Microphones

Introduction

Infrasonic Microphones

Diaphragm Compliance Calculation

Microphone Transfer Function

System Simulation

Adjusting Diaphragm Compliance to Include Air-Spring Effect

Calibration

Wind Noise Filtering with Pipes and Spatial Arrays

Ultrasonic Microphones

Ultrasonic Acoustics Pertinent to Leak Detection

Some Basic Statistical Tools for Experiment Planning

Introduction

Checking Data for Conformance to Some Theoretical Distribution

Confidence Intervals for the Average (Mean) Value

Comparing Two Mean Values: Overlap Plots and Confidence Intervals

Confidence Intervals for the Standard Deviation

Specifying the Accuracy Needed in Individual Measurements to Achieve a Desired Accuracy in a Result Computed from Those Measurements

Multi-Axial Force/Torque Measurement: Thrust Stands for Jet and Rocket Engines

Introduction

Dynamics of Thrust Stand Force/Torque Measurement

Dynamic Response Equations of the Thrust Stand

Matrix Methods for Finding Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes

Simulink Simulation for Getting the Time Response to Initial Conditions and/or Driving Forces/Moments

Frequency Response of the Thrust Stand

Matrix Frequency Response Methods

Simulation of the Asymmetric System: Use of Simulink Subsystem Module

Static Calibration of Thrust Stands

Damping of Thrust Stands

Flexure Design

Shock Calibrator for Accelerometers

Introduction

Description of the Calibrator

Review of Basic Impact Calculations

Simulation of the Coefficient of Restitution Experiment

Some Analytical Solutions

Simulation of the Pneumatic Shock Calibrator Apparatus

Concluding Remarks

Shock Testing and the Shock Response Spectrum (SRS)

Analysis and Simulation of Response to Shock Inputs

The SRS

Practical Shock Testing and Analysis

Vibration Shakers as Shock Pulse Sources

Design of a Shock Isolater

Relation of SRS to Actual Mechanical Damage

Measurement System and Data Acquisition/Processing Considerations

Appendix A: Basic MATLAB/SIMULINK Techniques for Dynamic Systems

Appendix B: Basic Statistical Calculations Using Minitab

About the Author

Ernest O. Doebelin is Professor Emeritus in the College of Engineering at Ohio State University, where he received the Alumni Award for Distinguished Teaching and the Charles E. MacQuigg Award for Outstanding Teaching.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC009000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Engineering (General)
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical
TEC027000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Nanotechnology & MEMS
TEC064000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Sensors