Instruments of Land Policy: Dealing with Scarcity of Land, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Instruments of Land Policy

Dealing with Scarcity of Land, 1st Edition

Edited by Jean-David Gerber, Thomas Hartmann, Andreas Hengstermann


360 pages

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pub: 2018-01-23
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In dealing with scarce land, planners often need to interact with, and sometimes confront, property right-holders to address complex property rights situations. To reinforce their position in situations of rivalrous land uses, planners can strategically use and combine different policy instruments in addition to standard land use plans. Effectively steering spatial development requires a keen understanding of these instruments of land policy.

This book not only presents how such instruments function, it additionally examines how public authorities strategically manage the scarcity of land, either increasing or decreasing it, to promote a more sparing use of resources. It presents 13 instruments of land policy in specific national contexts and discusses them from the perspectives of other countries. Through the use of concrete examples, the book reveals how instruments of land policy are used strategically in different policy contexts.

Table of Contents

I Preface


Rachelle Alterman


II Introduction

1 Land, scarcity, and property rights

Thomas Hartmann

Jean-David Gerber

2 Land policy – how to deal with scarcity of land

Jean-David Gerber

Andreas Hengstermann

François-Xavier Viallon

3 Instruments of land policy – four types of intervention

Andreas Hengstermann

Thomas Hartmann


4 Reference land values in Germany: Land policy by market transparency

Winrich Voß

Jörn Bannert

A Swedish perspective on reference land values: Transparency by tax policy

Thomas Kalbro

Leif Norell

A Taiwan perspective on reference land values: The hare and the hedgehogs – chasing real price levels with public market information

Tzuyuan Stessa Chao

5 Added value capturing in Switzerland: How much is enough?

François-Xavier Viallon

A Dutch perspective on added value capture: How far can you go?

Erwin van der Krabben

A British perspective on added value capture: Ups and downs during its history

Janet Askew

6 Land taxation in Estonia: An efficient instrument of land policy for land scarcity, equity, and ecology

Fabian Thiel

Fabian Wenner

A German perspective on land taxation: Political inertia and debates on social and distributional aspects

Dirk Löhr

A British perspective on land taxation: Politically unpopular

Antonia Layard


7 Negotiated land use plans in the Netherlands: A central instrument in Dutch ‘active’ and ‘passive’ land policy

Joost Tennekes

An Austrian perspective on negotiated land use plans: A means for municipalities to mobilise building land

Alois Humer

A Canadian perspective on negotiated land use plans: Discretionary zoning in Vancouver

Marko Marskamp

8 Urban growth boundary in the USA: Managing land scarcity in the Portland region

Edward J. Sullivan

A Dutch perspective on urban growth boundaries: From containing to stimulating growth

Leonie Janssen-Jansen

Wendy Tan

A German perspective on urban growth boundaries: The answer of comprehensive regional planning

Martin Wickel

9 Land readjustment in Portugal: Theoretically attractive but eternally postponed in practice

Beatriz Condessa

Ana Morais de Sá

Joana Almeida

José Antunes Ferreira

A German perspective on land readjustment: A proper instrument of modern urban governance for efficient land use

Theo Kötter

A Dutch perspective on land readjustment: Not very practical for planner’s paradise

Sanne Holtslag-Broekhof

10 Building obligations in Switzerland: Overcoming the passivity of plan implementation

Andreas Hengstermann

A German perspective on building obligations: Planning professionals try to remember

Michael Kolocek

A US-American perspective on obligations to build: Planning professionals would be shocked

Harvey M. Jacobs


11 Pre-emption rights in France: Disputes over pre-emptions and the ‘land scarcity’

Melot Romain

A Swiss perspective on pre-emption rights: Impact without application

Stéphane Nahrath

A Serbian perspective on pre-emption rights: Change that was necessary?

Sofija Nikolić

12 Tradable development rights in the US: Making zoning flexible through market mechanisms

Thomas Skuzinski

Evangeline Linkous

An Israelian perspective on TDR: Trading for protecting

Nir Mualam

A Canadian Perspective on TDR: You call that a "market"?

Eran S. Kaplinsky

13 Long-term land leases in France: An instrument to address scarcity of social housing

Sonia Guelton

Vincent Le Rouzic

A Swiss perspective on time-limited property rights: Strategic use for active land policy

Jean-David Gerber

An Australian perspective on heritable building rights: Paramount property rights

Rebecca Leshinsky



14 Strategic land banking in the Netherlands: Experiencing Dutch dilemmas

Tejo Spit

A British perspective on strategic land banking: Critical voices on land banking

Deborah Peel

A U.S. American Perspective on land banking: Just not the American way

Richard K. Norton

15 Expropriation for urban development purposes in German: Consider very carefully before using it

Juliane Albrecht

A Dutch perspective on expropriation: The pragmatic way

Barrie Needham

A U.S. American perspective on expropriation: A radically different view

Dan Tarlock

16 Nationalization of land in Scotland: Private property and the public interest

Greg Lloyd

A Czech perspective on nationalization of land: The post-socialist view

Jirina Jilkova

A Greek perspective on nationalization of land: Kilt and fustanella – same principle, different colours

Konstantinos Lalenis

VI Conclusion

17 Planning with or against property rights

Jean-David Gerber

Thomas Hartmann

Andreas Hengstermann

About the Editors


Jean-David Gerber is Associate Professor at the University of Bern, Switzerland (tenure track).

Thomas Hartmann is Associate Professor at Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.

Andreas Hengstermann is a PhD student at the Institute of Geography, Research Unit Urban and Regional Planning, University of Bern, Switzerland.

About the Series

Urban Planning and Environment

Urban Planning and Environment
Maintaining and enhancing living conditions in cities through a combination of physical planning and environmental management is a newly emerging focus of governments around the world. For example, local governments seek to insulate sensitive land uses such as residential areas from environmentally intrusive activities such as major transport facilities and manufacturing. Regional governments protect water quality and natural habitat by enforcing pollution controls and regulating the location of growth. Some national governments fund acquisition of strategically important sites, facilitate the renewal of brown fields, and even develop integrated environmental quality plans. The aim of this series is to share information on experiments and best practices of governments at several levels. These empirically-based studies present and critically assess a variety of initiatives to improve environmental quality. Although institutional and cultural contexts vary, lessons from one commonly can provide useful ideas to other communities. Each of the contributions are independently peer reviewed, and are intended to be helpful to professional planners and environmental managers, elected officials, representatives of NGOs, and researchers seeking improved ways to resolve environmental problems in urban areas and to foster sustainable urban development.

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / Regional Planning