1st Edition

Integrated Inductors and Transformers Characterization, Design and Modeling for RF and MM-Wave Applications

    170 Pages 82 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    With the ability to improve performance, reduce fabrication costs, and increase integration levels of both RX and TX sections of the RF/mm-wave front-end, passive inductive components have experienced extraordinary growth in ICs. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of monolithic inductors and transformers has become essential for all process engineers and circuit designers.

    Supplying balanced coverage of the technology and applications, Integrated Inductors and Transformers: Characterization, Design and Modeling for RF and mm-Wave Applications provides a complete overview of the design, fabrication, and modeling of monolithic inductors and transformers. It considers the underlying physics and theoretical background of inductive components fabricated on a semiconductor substrate.

    • Deals with both inductors and transformers and their application in RF/mm-wave ICs
    • Focuses on silicon-based inductive components and their performance optimization in RF/mm-wave ICs
    • Provides insight into lumped scalable modeling of both inductors and transformers
    • Covers concepts of system calibration, test pattern parasitics, and de-embedding for on-wafer measurements of passive devices
    • Illustrates practical applications of theoretical concepts by means of meaningful circuit design examples

    Highlighting the pressing requirements of the wireless market and evolving communication standards, the text provides a comprehensive review of recently developed modeling techniques and applications. It also includes helpful rule-of-thumb design guidelines and commonly employed optimization strategies to help kick-start your design, fabrication, and modeling efforts.


    Basic Concepts 
    Basic Definitions and Loss Mechanisms 
    Layout Fundamentals 
    Passive Device Measurements 
         Calibration Accuracy and Residual Error 
         De-Embedding Techniques
    Fabrication and Modeling: The State of the Art 
         Fabrication Technology and Advanced Layout Techniques 
         Numerical and Circuit Modeling

    Monolithic Inductors on Silicon
    Overview on Silicon Technology 
         Silicon Technologies 
         Fabrication Technology
    Substrate Optimization for Inductor on Silicon
         Comparative Analysis 
         Benefits of Buried Layer PGS
         Fabricated Inductors 
         Integrated Inductors for Single-Ended Applications 
         Symmetric Integrated Inductors 
         Inductance Calculation 
         State-of-the-Art Inductance Equations
         Modified Current Sheet Expression for Sub-nH Inductors 
         Inductance Modeling of Thick-Metal Inductors 
         Modeling of Monolithic Inductors 
         Lumped Scalable Model 
         Model Validation

    Analysis and Modeling of Silicon-Integrated Transformers
    Substrate Optimization of Transformer on Silicon
    Transformer Characterization and Analysis
    Modeling of Stacked Transformers 
         Lumped Scalable Model 
         Model Validation

    Design Guidelines and Circuit Design Examples for Inductors and Transformers 
    Application of Inductive Components in RF/mm-Wave ICs 
    Inductor Design Guidelines and Optimization Procedures 
    Transformer Design Guidelines and Optimization Procedures 
    Circuit Design Examples 
         An Image-Reject Receiver Front-End for 5-GHz WLANs 
         A 17‑GHz Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Transformer-Based Resonator
         A 24-GHz UWB Transmitter for Automotive Short-Range Radar

    Inductive Components on Dieletric Substrates
    IPD Technology
    Inductive Components on Glass Substrate 
         5‑GHz WLAN Module Architecture 
         IRFs and TX Filters in IPD Technology 
    Inductive Components on Plastic Substrate


    Egidio Ragonese, Angelo Scuderi, Tonio Biondi, Giuseppe Palmisano