1st Edition

Integrated Watershed Management in Rainfed Agriculture

    496 Pages
    by CRC Press

    496 Pages
    by CRC Press

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the realization of improved rainfed agriculture yield in semi-arid and dry land areas. The incentive of watershed programs is to increase the return on investment with over 20% for 65% of the projects that are currently underperforming. Besides techniques to improve the livelihood of the many small-scale farmers in developing countries, it includes examples and case studies for further support. The methods discussed have recently shown to be successful and economically remunerative in India and in various African countries.

    Intended for professionals (investors, policy makers), researchers and (post) graduate students working on dry land and sustainable agriculture and water and natural resources management. Suited for courses in dry land agriculture, soil and water management and watershed development.

    List of contributors

    1 Improving livelihoods in rainfed areas through integrated watershed management: A development perspective

    1.1 Introduction and overview
    1.2 The semi-arid tropics and the importance of rainfed farming
    1.3 The objectives of watershed management
    1.4 The main experience
    1.5 Understanding the nature of rural poverty
    1.5.1 Landlessness
    1.5.2 Women
    1.5.3 Subsistence
    1.5.4 Debt and awareness
    1.5.5 Health
    1.5.6 Human rights
    1.5.7 Environment
    1.5.8 Trends
    1.5.9 Assistance
    1.5.10 Equity and inclusion
    1.5.11 Migration
    1.5.12 Case study
    1.5.13 Indicators of progress
    1.6 Four stages to pull a rural community out of poverty
    1.6.1 The Process Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
    1.6.2 Recent improvements
    1.6.3 Community resource centers
    1.6.4 Income-generating activities
    1.6.5 Second generation interventions: market links
    1.6.6 Duration of support and coordination
    1.6.7 Better use of the NGOs as collaborators or implementers
    1.7 Aspects of the process of watershed implementation
    1.7.1 Management of watershed
    1.7.2 Groups and Jankars
    1.7.3 Savings, loans, and credit
    1.7.4 Literacy and numeracy
    1.7.5 Expenditure
    1.7.6 Land ownership
    1.7.7 Spread and dissemination
    1.7.8 Lack of spread of locally successful watershed interventions in India
    1.7.9 Sustainability
    1.7.10 Subsidies and cost contributions
    1.8 Technology for the poor
    1.8.1 General principles Participatory varietal selection (PVS) Client oriented breeding Seed priming Technologies for women Soil conservation Soil fertility Crop pest control Renewable energy technologies Community empowerment
    1.8.2 Water
    1.8.3 Trees
    1.8.4 Livestock and fodder
    1.8.5 Aquaculture
    1.9 Future research needs
    1.10 Concluding remarks and way forward

    2 Watershed development as a growth engine for sustainable development of rainfed areas
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 A concept of safe operating space for humanity
    2.3 Current status of rainfed agriculture
    2.4 Vast potential to increase crop yields in rainfed areas
    2.5 Improved water productivity is a key to unlock the potential of rainfed agriculture
    2.6 Water alone cannot do it
    2.7 Integrated watershed management is key for sustainable management of land and water resources and improved livelihoods

    3 Watershed development for rainfed areas: Concept, principles, and approaches
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Watershed concept
    3.3 Importance of land use planning in watershed development
    3.4 Criteria for prioritization of watersheds
    3.5 Common features of the watershed development model
    3.6 Evolution of watershed development approach in India
    3.7 Need for a holistic approach for watershed management
    3.8 Evolution of the consortium approach
    3.9 Components of integrated watershed management
    3.9.1 Entry Point Activity
    3.9.2 Land and water conservation practices
    3.9.3 Integrated pest and nutrient management
    3.9.4 Farmers’ participatory research and development trials
    3.9.5 Crop diversification and intensification of crops and systems
    3.9.6 Use of multiple resources
    3.9.7 Capacity building
    3.10 Key features of facilitating the consortium approach
    3.10.1 Need for a common goal – team building
    3.10.2 Building on the strengths
    3.10.3 Institutionalization of partnerships
    3.10.4 Internal and external institutional arrangements
    3.10.5 Dynamic and evolving
    3.10.6 Scaling-up/out the approach
    3.11 Advantages of consortium approach
    3.11.1 Sustainability
    3.11.2 Cost-effectiveness
    3.11.3 Win-win solution through empowerment of partners
    3.11.4 Rapid scaling-up
    3.11.5 Change in organizational behavior
    3.11.6 Public-private partnerships are facilitated (multiplier effect)
    3.12 Learnings from the experience and triggers for success
    3.13 Operationalizing community watershed as a growth engine
    3.14 Watershed as an entry point to improve livelihoods
    3.15 Convergence in watershed
    3.16 Multiple benefits from integrated watershed development
    3.17 Conclusions

    4 Equity in watershed development: Imperatives for property rights, resource allocation, and institutions
    4.1 Introduction
    4.1.1 The context
    4.1.2 Exclusion of landless and women: Role of CPLRs
    4.1.3 Groundwater and equity
    4.1.4 Project-based equity
    4.1.5 Linkages between technology, allocation of funds, and institutions: The issue of mode
    4.1.6 Equity in policy and guidelines
    4.1.7 Objectives and approach
    4.2 Equity, property rights, and biophysical characteristics
    4.2.1 Equity and property relations in land and water Historically embedded inequalities in access to land and water Land: Domains of ownership Ownership, land use, and CPLR Ownership and landlessness
    4.2.2 Water: Availability and increasing water scarcity Property relations in water Water is a local and non-local resource Spatial or location inequities How do the biophysical characteristics actually play out?
    4.2.3 Water is a common pool resource and has competing uses The meeting of property relations and the biophysical characteristics Watershed also creates conditions for a positive sum game
    4.2.4 Efforts to address equity Equity in coverage Targeted approach Common lands Equitable sharing of increased water Produce sharing arrangements Attempts at risk proofing/pooling and sharing arrangements
    4.2.5 Main observations
    4.3 Funds allocation and subsidies
    4.3.1 Nature of watershed treatments among sample villages
    4.3.2 Perceived benefits: Sources and beneficiaries
    4.3.3 Total number of beneficiaries: Some approximation
    4.3.4 Distribution of subsidies and alternative mechanisms
    4.3.5 Overall evidence
    4.4 Equity and institutions
    4.4.1 Criticality of institutional process for equity in watershed
    4.4.2 Institutional challenges: Learning from the CPR literature
    4.4.3 Institutions within WDPs: Provisions in various guidelines
    4.4.4 Learning from the past experience: Taking stock Participatory processes: A larger view SHGs and user groups: A tool for equity CPLRs and institutions
    4.4.5 Examples of good practices Streamlining equity consideration: Case of CWDP-Orissa Public-private collaboration for forest development in watersheds: A case of IGWDP in Ahmednagar district Sujala watershed and social regulations
    4.4.6 Main observations
    4.5 Gender mainstreaming
    4.5.1 Enhancing women’s participation and mainstreaming of women SHGs
    4.5.2 Promotion of micro-enterprises
    4.5.3 Institutional challenges
    4.6 Policy implications and way forward
    4.6.1 Multi-pronged approach
    4.6.2 Policy recommendation
    4.6.3 Way forward

    5 Policies and institutions for increasing benefits of integrated watershed management programs
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Integrated watershed management program in India
    5.3 Policy endorsement at macro level
    5.4 Watershed development guidelines
    5.4.1 The new common guidelines
    5.5 Institutional arrangements for watershed development
    5.5.1 National Rainfed Area Authority
    5.5.2 Central Level Nodal Agency
    5.5.3 State Level Nodal Agency
    5.5.4 District Watershed Development Unit
    5.5.5 Project implementing agency
    5.5.6 Watershed Committee
    5.5.7 Self-help groups
    5.5.8 User groups
    5.6 Promoting closer institutional links
    5.7 Dealing with policy and institutional constraints
    5.7.1 Collective action
    5.7.2 Bottom-up approach
    5.7.3 Capacity building
    5.7.4 Knowledge-based Entry Point Activity
    5.7.5 Empowering women and vulnerable groups
    5.8 Sustainable watershed management: Role of common guidelines
    5.8.1 Institutional responsibilities
    5.8.2 Delegation of power to the states
    5.8.3 Dedicated institutions
    5.8.4 Convergence
    5.8.5 Consortium approach
    5.8.6 Addressing equity
    5.8.7 Project management
    5.8.9 Post-project sustainability
    5.9 Operationalizing policies
    5.10 Conclusions

    6 Application of new science tools in integrated watershed management for enhancing impacts
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 New science tools for watershed management
    6.2.1 Geographical information system (GIS)
    6.2.2 Remote sensing
    6.3 Crop-growth simulation modeling
    6.4 Field sensors and data communication devices
    6.4.1 Global Positioning System
    6.4.2 Automatic Weather Station
    6.4.3 Mobile devices
    6.5 Data storage and dissemination
    6.6 Spatial technologies in rainfed agriculture and watershed management
    6.6.1 Characterization of production systems in India
    6.6.2 Land use mapping for assessing fallows and cropping intensity
    6.6.3 Spatial distribution of rainy season fallows in Madhya Pradesh
    6.6.4 Spatial distribution and quantification of rice-fallows in South Asia: Potential for legumes
    6.6.5 GIS mapping of spatial variability of soil micronutrients at district level
    6.6.6 Assessment of seasonal rainfall forecasting and climate risk management options for peninsular India
    6.6.7 Baseline studies to delineate watershed
    6.6.8 Regional-scale water budgeting for SAT India
    6.6.9 Spatial water balance modeling of watersheds
    6.7 Integrated watershed management for land and water conservation and sustainable agricultural production in Asia
    6.7.1 Assessment of agroclimatic potential
    6.7.2 Climatic water balance
    6.7.3 Climatic water balance of watersheds in China, Thailand, Vietnam, and India
    6.7.4 Rainfed length of growing period
    6.7.5 Drought monitoring at watersheds
    6.7.6 Weather forecasting for agriculture
    6.7.7 Watershed monitoring
    6.7.8 Satellite images for impact assessment
    6.7.9 Monitoring and evaluation of NWDPRA watersheds using remote sensing
    6.7.10 Monitoring and impact assessment of Adarsha watershed
    6.8 Technology integration
    6.8.1 Field data transmission
    6.8.2 Sensor Web
    6.8.3 Spatial simulation modeling
    6.8.4 Use of ICT in watershed management
    6.8.5 Intelligent watershed information system
    6.9 Summary and conclusions

    7 Soil and water conservation for optimizing productivity and improving livelihoods in rainfed areas
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Soil and water conservation practices
    7.2.1 In-situ soil and water conservation Contour cultivation and conservation furrows Tied ridges Scoops (or pitting) Broad-bed and furrow and related systems
    7.2.2 Bunding Contour bunding Modified contour bunds Graded bunding Field bunding Compartmental bunding Vegetative barriers
    7.2.3 Tillage Zero tillage or minimum tillage or conservation tillage
    7.2.4 Ex-situ soil and water conservation (runoff harvesting and supplemental irrigation) Crop responses to supplemental irrigation
    7.2.5 Indigenous soil and rainwater conservation practices
    7.3 Enhancing the impacts of soil and water conservation and water harvesting interventions through integrated watershed approach
    7.4 Strategies for improving adoption of soil and water conservation practices by farmers
    7.5 Conclusions

    8 Rainwater harvesting improves returns on investment in smallholder agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 The need to respond to the threat of climate change
    8.3 Policies and institutional frameworks
    8.4 Why focus on rainwater harvesting?
    8.5 Options for rainwater harvesting
    8.5.1 RWH from surface runoff and storage in ponds, pans, and tanks (blue water)
    8.5.2 Rooftop rainwater harvesting
    8.5.3 Small earth dams and weirs
    8.5.4 Sand and subsurface dams
    8.5.5 Runoff harvesting and storage in soil profile
    8.5.6 In-situ water harvesting and conservation
    8.5.7 Spateflow diversion and utilization
    8.5.8 Conservation agriculture and RWH
    8.5.9 Soil fertility management in supporting RWH efforts
    8.5.10 Water for livestock
    8.5.11 Socioeconomic issues in RWH
    8.6 Conclusions
    8.7 Way forward
    8.7.1 Support rainwater harvesting Optimizing rainwater harvesting (Integrated watershed management) Runoff harvesting, diversions, and storage in soil profile Small individual water storages in ponds, pans, and tanks Medium-scale storage Rainwater harvesting for underground storages
    8.7.2 Provide secure rights to access land and water
    8.7.3 Adoption of innovative financing for smallholder farmers
    8.7.4 Interactive capacity strengthening for RWH
    8.7.5 Enhance policy support
    8.7.6 Recommendations

    9 Management of emerging multinutrient deficiencies: A prerequisite for sustainable enhancement of rainfed agricultural productivity
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Soil degradation – organic matter and nutrient status of SAT soils
    9.3 Balanced nutrient management: Crop productivity and quality
    9.4 Soil quality and water use efficiency
    9.5 Strategy for scaling-up the soil test-based approach for enhancing agricultural productivity
    9.6 General discussion and conclusions

    10 Increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency in rainfed agriculture
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Water use efficiency: Concepts and definitions
    10.3 Water balance of crops in different rainfed regions
    10.4 Gaps in productivity and water use efficiency
    10.5 Integrated approach to enhance productivity and water use efficiency
    10.6 Rainfall management to secure water availability
    10.6.1 In-situ soil and water conservation Land surface management Tillage Conservation agriculture
    10.6.2 Water harvesting and groundwater recharge
    10.7 Increasing water use and water use efficiency
    10.7.1 Efficient supplemental irrigation Conveyance of water to the field Methods of application of supplemental water on SAT Vertisols Efficient application of supplemental water on SAT Alfisols Scheduling of irrigation and deficit irrigation Conjunctive use of rainfall and limited irrigation water Supplemental irrigation and crop intensification or diversification
    10.7.2 Increasing soil water uptake Improved crop agronomy Balanced plant nutrition Improved crop varieties and nutrient management Water conservation practices and nutrient management Crop protection Crop intensification (double cropping) Crop diversification with chickpea in rice fallows Contingent and dynamic cropping
    10.7.3 Reducing soil evaporation Mulches Microclimate modifications Land degradation, conservation agriculture, and water use efficiency
    10.7.4 Crop breeding for increased water productivity
    10.8 Promoting adoption of technologies
    10.8.1 Enabling policies
    10.8.2 Building institutions
    10.8.3 Raising awareness and capacity building
    10.9 Summary and conclusions

    11 Impact of watershed projects in India: Application of various approaches and methods
    11.1 Introduction
    11.1.1 An overview of watershed development programs in India
    11.1.2 Synthesis of past experience of watershed development in India
    11.1.3 Need for economic impact assessment of watershed
    11.1.4 Challenges in impact assessment of watershed development Methods of impact assessment Approaches of impact assessment Scale or time lags Samples for the study Selection of indicators Choosing the discount rate
    11.1.5 Indicators for evaluation of watershed development projects
    11.2 Approaches
    11.2.1 Before and after
    11.2.2 With and without
    11.2.3 Combination of with and without using double difference method
    11.3 Methodologies: Application of watershed evaluation methods
    11.3.1 Conventional benefit-cost analysis
    11.3.2 Econometric methods (Economic surplus approach) Application of economic surplus method to watershed evaluation Cost of project Results of the economic surplus method
    11.3.3 Bioeconomic modeling approach Advantages of bioeconomic modeling in impact assessment studies Application of bioeconomic model for impact evaluation of watershed development program in semi-arid tropics of India Biophysical and socioeconomic data Bioeconomic modeling Validation of the bioeconomic model Impact of change in yield of dryland crops Impact of change in irrigated area in the watershed
    11.3.4 Meta analysis Review of studies on meta analysis Biophysical impacts Socioeconomic impacts Environmental impacts Overall economic impacts
    11.3.5 Comparison of the methods
    11.4 Conclusions and policy recommendations

    12 Watershed management through a resilience lens
    12.1 Watershed management in smallholder rainfed agroecosystems
    12.2 Embedding smallholder farming in landscape ecosystem services
    12.2.1 Introduction to management successes and failures
    12.2.2 Smallholder agroecosystems and ecosystem services
    12.2.3 Watershed (landscape) management “successes”
    12.2.4 Summary of selected cases
    12.2.5 Academic reviews of unmanaged case studies
    12.2.6 Additional case studies
    12.2.7 Landscape limits and trade-offs between ecosystem services
    12.2.8 Long-term sustainability and the hidden impacts of management successes and failures
    12.3 Impacts on ecosystem services and the relationship to barriers to development of sustainable ecosystem services
    12.3.1 Impacts on system stability as obstacles in smallholder rainfed agroecosystems
    12.3.2 Understanding barriers as parts of ecosystem processes
    12.3.3 Climate change as an over-arching pressure
    12.3.4 Barriers for development reinterpreted as management opportunities
    12.4 Understanding successes and long-term agroecosystem stability
    12.3.3 Introduction to agroecosystem stability
    12.4.2 Resilience defined
    12.4.3 Drivers of system stability
    12.4.4 Tipping points and regime shifts
    12.4.5 Defining key system components and processes
    12.4.6 Interpreting successes in terms of overall agroecosystem stability
    12.5 Identifying management entry points using a resilience frame
    12.5.1 Management entry points – learning from case studies
    12.5.2 Recommendations for future research
    12.5.3 Resources to assist practitioners

    13 Impacts of climate change on rainfed agriculture and adaptation strategies to improve livelihoods
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Climate change impacts
    13.2.1 Crop and livestock production
    13.2.2 Water resources
    13.3 Regional impacts
    13.3.1 Sub-Saharan Africa
    13.3.2 South Asia
    13.4 Prices, poverty, and malnutrition
    13.5 Adaptation
    13.5.1 Coping, adaptation, and resilience
    13.5.2 Adaptation strategies
    13.6 Conclusions

    Colour plates


    Suhas P. Wani, Johan Rockstrom, Kanwar Lal Sahrawat