Intelligent Cities : Enabling Tools and Technology book cover
1st Edition

Intelligent Cities
Enabling Tools and Technology

ISBN 9781032340142
Published July 12, 2022 by Auerbach Publications
520 Pages 149 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The emergence of highly promising and potent technologies has enabled the transition of ordinary objects into smart artifacts—providing wider connectivity of digitized entities that can facilitate the building of connected cities. This book provides readers with a solid foundation on the latest technologies and tools required to develop and enhance smart cities around the world.

The book begins by examining the rise of the cloud as the fundamental technology for establishing and sustaining smart cities and enterprises. Explaining the principal technologies and platform solutions for implementing intelligent cities, the book details the role of various technologies, standards, protocols, and tools in establishing flexible homes and the buildings of the future.

  • Examines IT platforms and tools from various product vendors
  • Considers service-oriented architecture and event-driven architecture for smart city applications
  • Explains how to leverage big data analytics for smart city enhancement and improved decision making
  • Includes case studies of intelligent cities, smart homes, buildings, transports, healthcare systems, and airports

The authors explore the convergence of cloud computing and enterprise architecture and present valuable information on next-generation cloud computing. They also cover the various architectural types, including enterprise-scale integration, security, management, and governance.

The book concludes by explaining the various security requirements of intelligent cities as well as the threats and vulnerabilities of the various components that form the basis of the intelligent city framework, including cloud, big data, Internet of Things, and mobile technologies.

Table of Contents

Envisioning Intelligent Cities
Unfolding the Smarter Planet Vision
The Need for Intelligent Cities
City-Specific Challenges
     Trickling Urbanization Challenges
The Vast Potentials of Smart Cities
City Transformation Strategy
     Infrastructure Optimization
     System Infrastructure
     The Adoption of Versatile Technologies 
     The Assimilation of Architectures 
     Services Are Everywhere 
     Devices Are Connected and Cyber-Enabled for People-Centric Services 
     Process Excellence
     Make Sense Out of Data for Big Insights
The Key Trends in IT Toward Smart Cities 
     The Shift Toward People IT
     The Era of Smart Computing
     Smarter Environments 
     The Need for Cloud-Enablement 
     A Few Smart City Use Cases
Smart City Infrastructure and Platform Solutions
     Smart City Infrastructures
     Leading Smart City Platforms
The Context-Aware Framework for Smart CityApplications 
     Data Collection and Cleansing 
     Data Storage 
     Data Interpretation 
     Data Dissemination

Mobile Technologies and Applications for Intelligent Cities

Evolution of Mobile Wireless Technologies
Mobile Application Development Platforms
Challenges of Intelligent Cities and Solutions Offered by Mobile Wireless Networks and Devices 
     Mobile Payments and Ticketing 
     Intelligent Energy Conservation Using Mobile Devices 
     Analysis and Commercial Insights 
     Drivers for Mobile BI Adoption
     Key Trends in Mobile BI 
     Steps to Get Started with Mobile BI 
     Mobile Healthcare
     Wireless Fleet Management
Enabling Mobile Technologies for an Intelligent City
     Mobile Augmented Reality

The Role and Relevance of Software-Defined Cloud Infrastructures

About Cloud Technology
Key Motivations for Cloud-Enabled Environments
Why Cloud Technology Is Being Aggressively Pursued by Worldwide Governments
A Look at Cloud-Inspired Enterprise Transformations
     The Emergence of Cloud Environments 
     Energy Optimization
     Cloud-Enabled and Hosted Smarter City Applications 
     A Cloud-Enabled Context-Aware Framework for Smarter Environments
     A Sample Use Case
     Cloud-Based Smarter Home Applications
     Cloud-Enabled Smart Grids 
     A Cloud-Based Monitoring Framework for Smart Homes 
     Cloud-Inspired Smarter Healthcare Services
     Sensor-Cloud Integration for Smarter Cities 
     Social and Sensor Data Fusion in Cloud 
      Integrating Sensors with Cloud Using Dynamic Proxies
     The Next-Generation Hybrid Clouds 
     The Compelling Use Cases for Next-Generation Hybrid Clouds 
     Use Cases—Computation and Actionable Insights 
     Storage Use Cases 
     Data Dissemination
     Software-Defined Infrastructures and Software-Defined Environments
Building Blocks of Software-Defined Data Centers 
     Software-Defined Networking 
     The Key Motivations for SDN
     Tending Toward Network Virtualization 
     The Need of SDN for the Cloud 
     Software-Defined Storage
     Cloud-Based Big Data Storage 
     Key Characteristics of Software-Defined Storage

Big Data Analytics for Real-Time City Insights

Data Analytics and Intelligent Cities
     The Prominent Sources of Big Data 
     Describing the Big Data World
     Big Data Characteristics 
     A Perspective on Big Data Computing 
     Why Big Data Computing?
     The Application Domains
Describing Big Data Analytics 
     The Big Trends of BDA 
     BDA Use Cases
Machine Data Analytics by Splunk®
Open Data for Next-Generation Cities
Edge Data for Cities of the Future 
     Edge Data for Smarter Cities 
     Edge Data for Smart Retailers 
     Edge Data for Smart Automobiles
     Edge Data for Smart Manufacturing
     Edge Data for Facilities and Asset Management
Integrated BDA Platforms
     Software-Defined Infrastructures for BDA
     Civitas: The Smart City Middleware 
     Hitachi Smart City Platform 
     Data Collection 
     Data Analysis 
     Application Coordination
BDA Frameworks and Infrastructure 
     Apache Hadoop Software Framework 
     NoSQL Databases

The Internet of Things for Connected and Cognitive Cities

Envisioning the IoT Era
Emerging IoT Trends 
     Deeper Digitization Toward Smart Objects 
     The Growing Device Ecosystem 
     Software-Defined Cloud Infrastructures 
     Big Data Analytics
The IoT Reference Architecture
     Smart City Communication Architecture
     Network Architectures for IoT Applications 
     IP-Based Connectivity Models
Prominent IoT Technologies
The IoT: The Key Results
The Advantages of the IoT Concept for Smart Cities 
     The Co-Creation of IoT-Enabled Services for Smarter Cities 
     Examples of IoT-Inspired Services Co-Created and Tested
     The Role of Advanced Sensing in Smart Cities 
     Sensors Everywhere and in Everything 
     Sensing as a Service for Cities of the Future
Popular IoT/M2M Applications 
     A Typical IoT Application 
     Health of Buildings 
     Smart Energy 
     Smart Healthcare 
     Smart Home Security 
     Smart Cargo Handling 
     Smart Traffic Management
     Smart Inventory and Replenishment Management 
     Smart Cash Payment 
     Smart Tracking 
     Smart Displays 
     Smart Asset Management
     Air Quality 
     Noise Monitoring 
     Traffic Congestion 
     Smart Parking
Cyber Physical System for Smart City Needs 
     CPS for Emergency Response
Smart City Platforms and Frameworks 
     A Communication Platform for Smart Cities 
     A Smart City M2M Platform 
     A Framework of Sensor-Cloud Integration
Homeland Security and the Sensor Cloud

Social Media Analytics for People Empowerment

Building a Framework for the Use of Social Media Analytics for Business 
     Social Media Content Metrics
     Different Dimensions of Social Media
     Revenue and Sales Lead Generation
     Customer Relationship and Customer
     Social Media Tools
Social Media Analytics Architecture for Intelligent Cities 
     Social Media Analytics for City Government
     Design of an Architecture for Sentiment Analysis in Intelligent Cities 
     Use of IBM’s Social Sentiment Index to Identify the Factors Impacting People in Five Canadian Cities 
     Spain Uses Sentiment Analysis to Track and Improve Standards of City Services 
     Sentiment Analysis to Track the Mood of City Residents Uses Sentiment Analysis to Track Food Mood of Citizens
     Smart Policing Using Sensors and Domain Awareness System 
     Case Study of Sentiment Analysis Implementation in an Intelligent City

Intelligent Cities
: Strategy-Making and Governance
IT Initiatives for Intelligent City Governance 
     IT-Enabled City Strategies 
     Key Challenges for E-Government
IT-Enabled Social Initiatives
     Urban Action Forums
Ubiquitous or Intelligent City 
     Ubiquitous Connectivity 
     Omnipresent Devices
     Collaboration Platforms 
     Cloud Computing 
     Open Standards and Service-Oriented Architecture
     Geospatial Platforms 
     Neogeography in U-Cities 
     Internet of Things 
     Advanced Analytics 
     Open Access to Public Data 
     Digitally Controlled Devices
     Social Media Networking
Strategic Governance Framework for the Implementation of U-Cities 
     City Objectives 
     City Indicators 
     City Components 
     City Content

Smart Homes and Buildings
Elucidating Technological Advancements
Key Drivers for Smarter Homes and Buildings
Prominent Use Cases of Smarter Homes and Buildings
Smarter Homes and Building Elements
Envisioning Smarter Homes and Buildings: The Role of the Cloud Theme
Smarter Environments Are Instrumented, Interconnected, and Intelligent
Smarter Home/Building Capabilities
Smarter Home/Building Services in Clouds
     Benefits of Cloud-Enabled Smarter Homes 
     Envisioning Service Delivery Platforms 
     Building Management System
IP-Based Convergence of Building Systems
Smarter Homes: Architectural Styles, Patterns, and Approaches 
     Smarter Homes—Middleware Platforms
     Smarter Home Frameworks
Home Integration Standards: Industry Strength and Proprietary
Smart Home Solutions

Smart Energy, Utility, and Transport
Smart Energy 
     Smart Grids 
     Energy Harvesting 
     The Need for Big Data Analytics for Smarter Grids 
     Envisioned Energy Grid Services for Smart Cities
Smart Lighting 
     Smart Lighting Approaches 
     Wireless Lighting Control Systems
Smart Transport 
     Electric Vehicles 
     Smarter Vehicles 
     Technological Implications for Vehicles
     Vehicle Connectivity Platforms, Tools, and Applications 
     Use Cases of Technology-Inspired Vehicles 
     An Assortment of Vehicle-Centric Applications
Approaches for Smarter Transportation 
     Predict Demand and Optimizing Capacity, Assets, and Infrastructure 
     Improve the End-to-End Experience for Travelers 
     Increase Operational Efficiency While Reducing the Environmental Impact 
     Ensure Safety and Security 
     Intelligent Transport Systems
Smart Utilities 
     Smart Metering

Intelligent Airports
     Inadequate Capacity
     Dissatisfied Passengers 
     Increased Regulatory Requirements
Evolution of Airport Infrastructure
Airport 1.0
Airport 2.0 
     Personal Technology/Processes
     Technology/Processes to Streamline the Passenger Journey
     Technology/Processes to Enhance Passenger Experience
     Processes for Increased Leisure Experience
     IT for the Benefits of Passengers
Envisioning Airports of the Future (Airport 3.0)
     Conceptual Models
     Infrastructure Models
     Revenue-Generating Models
     Public–Private Partnerships
     Technological Models

Next-Generation Healthcare Systems

Cloud Services in the Healthcare Sector 
     Electronic Storage of Medical Records 
     Office Productivity Solutions 
     Health Information Exchange
     Collaboration Solution for Physicians 
     Clinical Information System
Big Data Analytics in Healthcare Sector 
     Support Research in Genomics and Other Healthcare Projects 
     Transform Data from Information 
     Supporting Self-Care 
     Support for Providers 
     Increase Awareness 
     Pool Data to Build a Better Ecosystem

Security Management of Intelligent Cities
Security Requirements of an Intelligent City
     Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Triad 
     Authentication, Authorization, and Audit Trial Framework 
     Trusted Computing Base 
Security Concerns of Cloud Platforms 
     Virtual Machine Segmentation 
     Database Segmentation 
     VM Introspection 
     Distributed Denial of Service
     Hypervisor-Based Security Threats
     Unauthorized Alteration of VM Image Files 
     VM Theft 
     Inter-VM Attacks 
     Instant-On Gaps 
Security Threats to Big Data 
     Distributed Programming Frameworks
     Use of NoSQL Databases
     Storage Tiering 
     Data Source Validation 
     Privacy Concerns
Requirements of the Security Management Framework for Big Data 
     Agile Scale-Out Infrastructure 
     Security Analytics
Threat Monitoring and Intelligence
Security Threats in Smart Phones
Security Solutions for Mobile Devices
Security Concerns in the Internet of Things Platform
Security Measures for IoT Platforms/Devices 
      Secure Booting
     Mandatory Access Control Mechanisms 
     Device Authentication for Networks
     Device-Specific Firewalls 
     Controlled Mechanism to Ensure Application of Security Patches and Upgrades
Security Threats to Different IT-Based Infrastructure Components of an Intelligent City 
     Security Threats in Intelligent Transportation Systems 
     Security Threats in Intelligent/Smart Grids and Other Infrastructure Components of an Intelligent City
Best Practices to Be Adopted for a Secure Intelligent City


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Pethuru Raj PhD has been working as a cloud infrastructure architect in the IBM Global Cloud Center of Excellence, IBM India Bangalore. Previously he worked as TOGAF-certified enterprise architecture consultant in Wipro Consulting Services Division, Bangalore. He also had a fruitful stint as a lead architect in the corporate research division of Robert Bosch, India. He has gained thirteen years of IT industry experience.

Dr. Raj finished the CSIR-sponsored PhD degree in Anna University, Chennai, and continued the UGC-sponsored postdoctoral research in the department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore until 1999. Thereafter, he was granted a couple of international research fellowships (JSPS and JST) to work as a research scientist for three years in two leading Japanese universities. His technical competencies lie in service oriented architecture, cloud computing, enterprise architecture, context-aware computing and machine-to-machine integration, Big Data Analytics, Smart Cities, and business integration methods.

He has contributed book chapters for a number of high-quality technology books edited by internationally acclaimed professors and professionals. The CRC Press, USA, released his first book titled Cloud Enterprise Architecture in 2012. He has edited a book on the title Cloud Infrastructures for Big Data Analytics. He maintains an Information Technology (IT) portal at

Anupama Raman
is currently working as Content Lead for Smart Cities Brand of IBM and she is a part of Software group, Industry Solutions of IBM India. Prior to this, she was working with EMC Data Storage. She is a certified Storage Area Networking expert and is also a certified Data Center Architect. She is also certified in Cloud infrastructure and Services Management. Apart from these technical certifications, in the field of writing. She is a certified Information mapping professional and in the field of project management, she is a certified Scrum master. She holds an M.Tech degree in Computer Science and Engineering and is currently pursuing an MBA in IT Management. She has presented and published over twenty research papers in various national and international conferences and she has also written numerous book chapters with various national and international publishers.


In this book, the authors have presented a large number of right and relevant details on realizing and sustaining intelligent cities (the system of systems) across the world. ... this book will be informative and inspiring for readers, especially business executives, technical experts, solution architects, city planners and consultants, and government officials. The book has been designed and developed to be comprehensive and compact in explaining the nitty-gritty of promising smart city technologies, IT solutions, and use cases.
—Sandesh Bhat, Vice President, India Software Labs, IBM