1st Edition

Intelligent Cities Enabling Tools and Technology

By Pethuru Raj, Anupama C. Raman Copyright 2015
    520 Pages 149 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    520 Pages 149 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    The emergence of highly promising and potent technologies has enabled the transition of ordinary objects into smart artifacts—providing wider connectivity of digitized entities that can facilitate the building of connected cities. This book provides readers with a solid foundation on the latest technologies and tools required to develop and enhance smart cities around the world.

    The book begins by examining the rise of the cloud as the fundamental technology for establishing and sustaining smart cities and enterprises. Explaining the principal technologies and platform solutions for implementing intelligent cities, the book details the role of various technologies, standards, protocols, and tools in establishing flexible homes and the buildings of the future.

    • Examines IT platforms and tools from various product vendors
    • Considers service-oriented architecture and event-driven architecture for smart city applications
    • Explains how to leverage big data analytics for smart city enhancement and improved decision making
    • Includes case studies of intelligent cities, smart homes, buildings, transports, healthcare systems, and airports

    The authors explore the convergence of cloud computing and enterprise architecture and present valuable information on next-generation cloud computing. They also cover the various architectural types, including enterprise-scale integration, security, management, and governance.

    The book concludes by explaining the various security requirements of intelligent cities as well as the threats and vulnerabilities of the various components that form the basis of the intelligent city framework, including cloud, big data, Internet of Things, and mobile technologies.

    Envisioning Intelligent Cities
    Unfolding the Smarter Planet Vision
    The Need for Intelligent Cities
    City-Specific Challenges
         Trickling Urbanization Challenges
    The Vast Potentials of Smart Cities
    City Transformation Strategy
         Infrastructure Optimization
         System Infrastructure
         The Adoption of Versatile Technologies 
         The Assimilation of Architectures 
         Services Are Everywhere 
         Devices Are Connected and Cyber-Enabled for People-Centric Services 
         Process Excellence
         Make Sense Out of Data for Big Insights
    The Key Trends in IT Toward Smart Cities 
         The Shift Toward People IT
         The Era of Smart Computing
         Smarter Environments 
         The Need for Cloud-Enablement 
         A Few Smart City Use Cases
    Smart City Infrastructure and Platform Solutions
         Smart City Infrastructures
         Leading Smart City Platforms
    The Context-Aware Framework for Smart CityApplications 
         Data Collection and Cleansing 
         Data Storage 
         Data Interpretation 
         Data Dissemination

    Mobile Technologies and Applications for Intelligent Cities

    Evolution of Mobile Wireless Technologies
    Mobile Application Development Platforms
    Challenges of Intelligent Cities and Solutions Offered by Mobile Wireless Networks and Devices 
         Mobile Payments and Ticketing 
         Intelligent Energy Conservation Using Mobile Devices 
         Analysis and Commercial Insights 
         Drivers for Mobile BI Adoption
         Key Trends in Mobile BI 
         Steps to Get Started with Mobile BI 
         Mobile Healthcare
         Wireless Fleet Management
    Enabling Mobile Technologies for an Intelligent City
         Mobile Augmented Reality

    The Role and Relevance of Software-Defined Cloud Infrastructures

    About Cloud Technology
    Key Motivations for Cloud-Enabled Environments
    Why Cloud Technology Is Being Aggressively Pursued by Worldwide Governments
    A Look at Cloud-Inspired Enterprise Transformations
         The Emergence of Cloud Environments 
         Energy Optimization
         Cloud-Enabled and Hosted Smarter City Applications 
         A Cloud-Enabled Context-Aware Framework for Smarter Environments
         A Sample Use Case
         Cloud-Based Smarter Home Applications
         Cloud-Enabled Smart Grids 
         A Cloud-Based Monitoring Framework for Smart Homes 
         Cloud-Inspired Smarter Healthcare Services
         Sensor-Cloud Integration for Smarter Cities 
         Social and Sensor Data Fusion in Cloud 
          Integrating Sensors with Cloud Using Dynamic Proxies
         The Next-Generation Hybrid Clouds 
         The Compelling Use Cases for Next-Generation Hybrid Clouds 
         Use Cases—Computation and Actionable Insights 
         Storage Use Cases 
         Data Dissemination
         Software-Defined Infrastructures and Software-Defined Environments
    Building Blocks of Software-Defined Data Centers 
         Software-Defined Networking 
         The Key Motivations for SDN
         Tending Toward Network Virtualization 
         The Need of SDN for the Cloud 
         Software-Defined Storage
         Cloud-Based Big Data Storage 
         Key Characteristics of Software-Defined Storage

    Big Data Analytics for Real-Time City Insights

    Data Analytics and Intelligent Cities
         The Prominent Sources of Big Data 
         Describing the Big Data World
         Big Data Characteristics 
         A Perspective on Big Data Computing 
         Why Big Data Computing?
         The Application Domains
    Describing Big Data Analytics 
         The Big Trends of BDA 
         BDA Use Cases
    Machine Data Analytics by Splunk®
    Open Data for Next-Generation Cities
    Edge Data for Cities of the Future 
         Edge Data for Smarter Cities 
         Edge Data for Smart Retailers 
         Edge Data for Smart Automobiles
         Edge Data for Smart Manufacturing
         Edge Data for Facilities and Asset Management
    Integrated BDA Platforms
         Software-Defined Infrastructures for BDA
         Civitas: The Smart City Middleware 
         Hitachi Smart City Platform 
         Data Collection 
         Data Analysis 
         Application Coordination
    BDA Frameworks and Infrastructure 
         Apache Hadoop Software Framework 
         NoSQL Databases

    The Internet of Things for Connected and Cognitive Cities

    Envisioning the IoT Era
    Emerging IoT Trends 
         Deeper Digitization Toward Smart Objects 
         The Growing Device Ecosystem 
         Software-Defined Cloud Infrastructures 
         Big Data Analytics
    The IoT Reference Architecture
         Smart City Communication Architecture
         Network Architectures for IoT Applications 
         IP-Based Connectivity Models
    Prominent IoT Technologies
    The IoT: The Key Results
    The Advantages of the IoT Concept for Smart Cities 
         The Co-Creation of IoT-Enabled Services for Smarter Cities 
         Examples of IoT-Inspired Services Co-Created and Tested
         The Role of Advanced Sensing in Smart Cities 
         Sensors Everywhere and in Everything 
         Sensing as a Service for Cities of the Future
    Popular IoT/M2M Applications 
         A Typical IoT Application 
         Health of Buildings 
         Smart Energy 
         Smart Healthcare 
         Smart Home Security 
         Smart Cargo Handling 
         Smart Traffic Management
         Smart Inventory and Replenishment Management 
         Smart Cash Payment 
         Smart Tracking 
         Smart Displays 
         Smart Asset Management
         Air Quality 
         Noise Monitoring 
         Traffic Congestion 
         Smart Parking
    Cyber Physical System for Smart City Needs 
         CPS for Emergency Response
    Smart City Platforms and Frameworks 
         A Communication Platform for Smart Cities 
         A Smart City M2M Platform 
         A Framework of Sensor-Cloud Integration
    Homeland Security and the Sensor Cloud

    Social Media Analytics for People Empowerment

    Building a Framework for the Use of Social Media Analytics for Business 
         Social Media Content Metrics
         Different Dimensions of Social Media
         Revenue and Sales Lead Generation
         Customer Relationship and Customer
         Social Media Tools
    Social Media Analytics Architecture for Intelligent Cities 
         Social Media Analytics for City Government
         Design of an Architecture for Sentiment Analysis in Intelligent Cities 
         Use of IBM’s Social Sentiment Index to Identify the Factors Impacting People in Five Canadian Cities 
         Spain Uses Sentiment Analysis to Track and Improve Standards of City Services 
         Sentiment Analysis to Track the Mood of City Residents 
         FoodMood.in Uses Sentiment Analysis to Track Food Mood of Citizens
         Smart Policing Using Sensors and Domain Awareness System 
         Case Study of Sentiment Analysis Implementation in an Intelligent City

    Intelligent Cities
    : Strategy-Making and Governance
    IT Initiatives for Intelligent City Governance 
         IT-Enabled City Strategies 
         Key Challenges for E-Government
    IT-Enabled Social Initiatives
         Urban Action Forums
    Ubiquitous or Intelligent City 
         Ubiquitous Connectivity 
         Omnipresent Devices
         Collaboration Platforms 
         Cloud Computing 
         Open Standards and Service-Oriented Architecture
         Geospatial Platforms 
         Neogeography in U-Cities 
         Internet of Things 
         Advanced Analytics 
         Open Access to Public Data 
         Digitally Controlled Devices
         Social Media Networking
    Strategic Governance Framework for the Implementation of U-Cities 
         City Objectives 
         City Indicators 
         City Components 
         City Content

    Smart Homes and Buildings
    Elucidating Technological Advancements
    Key Drivers for Smarter Homes and Buildings
    Prominent Use Cases of Smarter Homes and Buildings
    Smarter Homes and Building Elements
    Envisioning Smarter Homes and Buildings: The Role of the Cloud Theme
    Smarter Environments Are Instrumented, Interconnected, and Intelligent
    Smarter Home/Building Capabilities
    Smarter Home/Building Services in Clouds
         Benefits of Cloud-Enabled Smarter Homes 
         Envisioning Service Delivery Platforms 
         Building Management System
    IP-Based Convergence of Building Systems
    Smarter Homes: Architectural Styles, Patterns, and Approaches 
         Smarter Homes—Middleware Platforms
         Smarter Home Frameworks
    Home Integration Standards: Industry Strength and Proprietary
    Smart Home Solutions

    Smart Energy, Utility, and Transport
    Smart Energy 
         Smart Grids 
         Energy Harvesting 
         The Need for Big Data Analytics for Smarter Grids 
         Envisioned Energy Grid Services for Smart Cities
    Smart Lighting 
         Smart Lighting Approaches 
         Wireless Lighting Control Systems
    Smart Transport 
         Electric Vehicles 
         Smarter Vehicles 
         Technological Implications for Vehicles
         Vehicle Connectivity Platforms, Tools, and Applications 
         Use Cases of Technology-Inspired Vehicles 
         An Assortment of Vehicle-Centric Applications
    Approaches for Smarter Transportation 
         Predict Demand and Optimizing Capacity, Assets, and Infrastructure 
         Improve the End-to-End Experience for Travelers 
         Increase Operational Efficiency While Reducing the Environmental Impact 
         Ensure Safety and Security 
         Intelligent Transport Systems
    Smart Utilities 
         Smart Metering

    Intelligent Airports
         Inadequate Capacity
         Dissatisfied Passengers 
         Increased Regulatory Requirements
    Evolution of Airport Infrastructure
    Airport 1.0
    Airport 2.0 
         Personal Technology/Processes
         Technology/Processes to Streamline the Passenger Journey
         Technology/Processes to Enhance Passenger Experience
         Processes for Increased Leisure Experience
         IT for the Benefits of Passengers
    Envisioning Airports of the Future (Airport 3.0)
         Conceptual Models
         Infrastructure Models
         Revenue-Generating Models
         Public–Private Partnerships
         Technological Models

    Next-Generation Healthcare Systems

    Cloud Services in the Healthcare Sector 
         Electronic Storage of Medical Records 
         Office Productivity Solutions 
         Health Information Exchange
         Collaboration Solution for Physicians 
         Clinical Information System
    Big Data Analytics in Healthcare Sector 
         Support Research in Genomics and Other Healthcare Projects 
         Transform Data from Information 
         Supporting Self-Care 
         Support for Providers 
         Increase Awareness 
         Pool Data to Build a Better Ecosystem

    Security Management of Intelligent Cities
    Security Requirements of an Intelligent City
         Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Triad 
         Authentication, Authorization, and Audit Trial Framework 
         Trusted Computing Base 
    Security Concerns of Cloud Platforms 
         Virtual Machine Segmentation 
         Database Segmentation 
         VM Introspection 
         Distributed Denial of Service
         Hypervisor-Based Security Threats
         Unauthorized Alteration of VM Image Files 
         VM Theft 
         Inter-VM Attacks 
         Instant-On Gaps 
    Security Threats to Big Data 
         Distributed Programming Frameworks
         Use of NoSQL Databases
         Storage Tiering 
         Data Source Validation 
         Privacy Concerns
    Requirements of the Security Management Framework for Big Data 
         Agile Scale-Out Infrastructure 
         Security Analytics
    Threat Monitoring and Intelligence
    Security Threats in Smart Phones
    Security Solutions for Mobile Devices
    Security Concerns in the Internet of Things Platform
    Security Measures for IoT Platforms/Devices 
          Secure Booting
         Mandatory Access Control Mechanisms 
         Device Authentication for Networks
         Device-Specific Firewalls 
         Controlled Mechanism to Ensure Application of Security Patches and Upgrades
    Security Threats to Different IT-Based Infrastructure Components of an Intelligent City 
         Security Threats in Intelligent Transportation Systems 
         Security Threats in Intelligent/Smart Grids and Other Infrastructure Components of an Intelligent City
    Best Practices to Be Adopted for a Secure Intelligent City



    Pethuru Raj PhD has been working as a cloud infrastructure architect in the IBM Global Cloud Center of Excellence, IBM India Bangalore. Previously he worked as TOGAF-certified enterprise architecture consultant in Wipro Consulting Services Division, Bangalore. He also had a fruitful stint as a lead architect in the corporate research division of Robert Bosch, India. He has gained thirteen years of IT industry experience.

    Dr. Raj finished the CSIR-sponsored PhD degree in Anna University, Chennai, and continued the UGC-sponsored postdoctoral research in the department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore until 1999. Thereafter, he was granted a couple of international research fellowships (JSPS and JST) to work as a research scientist for three years in two leading Japanese universities. His technical competencies lie in service oriented architecture, cloud computing, enterprise architecture, context-aware computing and machine-to-machine integration, Big Data Analytics, Smart Cities, and business integration methods.

    He has contributed book chapters for a number of high-quality technology books edited by internationally acclaimed professors and professionals. The CRC Press, USA, released his first book titled Cloud Enterprise Architecture in 2012. He has edited a book on the title Cloud Infrastructures for Big Data Analytics. He maintains an Information Technology (IT) portal at www.peterindia.net

    Anupama Raman
    is currently working as Content Lead for Smart Cities Brand of IBM and she is a part of Software group, Industry Solutions of IBM India. Prior to this, she was working with EMC Data Storage. She is a certified Storage Area Networking expert and is also a certified Data Center Architect. She is also certified in Cloud infrastructure and Services Management. Apart from these technical certifications, in the field of writing. She is a certified Information mapping professional and in the field of project management, she is a certified Scrum master. She holds an M.Tech degree in Computer Science and Engineering and is currently pursuing an MBA in IT Management. She has presented and published over twenty research papers in various national and international conferences and she has also written numerous book chapters with various national and international publishers.

    In this book, the authors have presented a large number of right and relevant details on realizing and sustaining intelligent cities (the system of systems) across the world. ... this book will be informative and inspiring for readers, especially business executives, technical experts, solution architects, city planners and consultants, and government officials. The book has been designed and developed to be comprehensive and compact in explaining the nitty-gritty of promising smart city technologies, IT solutions, and use cases.
    —Sandesh Bhat, Vice President, India Software Labs, IBM