Intelligent Cities: Enabling Tools and Technology, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Intelligent Cities

Enabling Tools and Technology, 1st Edition

By Pethuru Raj, Anupama C. Raman

Auerbach Publications

519 pages | 149 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-06-15
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The emergence of highly promising and potent technologies has enabled the transition of ordinary objects into smart artifacts—providing wider connectivity of digitized entities that can facilitate the building of connected cities. This book provides readers with a solid foundation on the latest technologies and tools required to develop and enhance smart cities around the world.

The book begins by examining the rise of the cloud as the fundamental technology for establishing and sustaining smart cities and enterprises. Explaining the principal technologies and platform solutions for implementing intelligent cities, the book details the role of various technologies, standards, protocols, and tools in establishing flexible homes and the buildings of the future.

  • Examines IT platforms and tools from various product vendors
  • Considers service-oriented architecture and event-driven architecture for smart city applications
  • Explains how to leverage big data analytics for smart city enhancement and improved decision making
  • Includes case studies of intelligent cities, smart homes, buildings, transports, healthcare systems, and airports

The authors explore the convergence of cloud computing and enterprise architecture and present valuable information on next-generation cloud computing. They also cover the various architectural types, including enterprise-scale integration, security, management, and governance.

The book concludes by explaining the various security requirements of intelligent cities as well as the threats and vulnerabilities of the various components that form the basis of the intelligent city framework, including cloud, big data, Internet of Things, and mobile technologies.


In this book, the authors have presented a large number of right and relevant details on realizing and sustaining intelligent cities (the system of systems) across the world. … this book will be informative and inspiring for readers, especially business executives, technical experts, solution architects, city planners and consultants, and government officials. The book has been designed and developed to be comprehensive and compact in explaining the nitty-gritty of promising smart city technologies, IT solutions, and use cases.

—Sandesh Bhat, Vice President, India Software Labs, IBM

Table of Contents

Envisioning Intelligent Cities


Unfolding the Smarter Planet Vision

The Need for Intelligent Cities

City-Specific Challenges

Trickling Urbanization Challenges

The Vast Potentials of Smart Cities

City Transformation Strategy

Infrastructure Optimization

System Infrastructure

The Adoption of Versatile Technologies

The Assimilation of Architectures

Services Are Everywhere

Devices Are Connected and Cyber-Enabled for People-Centric Services

Process Excellence

Make Sense Out of Data for Big Insights

The Key Trends in IT Toward Smart Cities

The Shift Toward People IT

The Era of Smart Computing

Smarter Environments

The Need for Cloud-Enablement

A Few Smart City Use Cases

Smart City Infrastructure and Platform Solutions

Smart City Infrastructures

Leading Smart City Platforms

The Context-Aware Framework for Smart CityApplications

Data Collection and Cleansing

Data Storage

Data Interpretation


Data Dissemination



Mobile Technologies and Applications for Intelligent Cities


Evolution of Mobile Wireless Technologies

Mobile Application Development Platforms

Challenges of Intelligent Cities and Solutions Offered by Mobile Wireless Networks and Devices

Mobile Payments and Ticketing

Intelligent Energy Conservation Using Mobile Devices

Analysis and Commercial Insights

Drivers for Mobile BI Adoption

Key Trends in Mobile BI

Steps to Get Started with Mobile BI

Mobile Healthcare

Wireless Fleet Management

Enabling Mobile Technologies for an Intelligent City

Mobile Augmented Reality



The Role and Relevance of Software-Defined Cloud Infrastructures


About Cloud Technology

Key Motivations for Cloud-Enabled Environments

Why Cloud Technology Is Being Aggressively Pursued by Worldwide Governments

A Look at Cloud-Inspired Enterprise Transformations

The Emergence of Cloud Environments

Energy Optimization

Cloud-Enabled and Hosted Smarter City Applications

A Cloud-Enabled Context-Aware Framework for Smarter Environments

A Sample Use Case

Cloud-Based Smarter Home Applications

Cloud-Enabled Smart Grids

A Cloud-Based Monitoring Framework for Smart Homes

Cloud-Inspired Smarter Healthcare Services

Sensor-Cloud Integration for Smarter Cities

Social and Sensor Data Fusion in Cloud

Integrating Sensors with Cloud Using Dynamic Proxies

The Next-Generation Hybrid Clouds

The Compelling Use Cases for Next-Generation Hybrid Clouds

Use Cases—Computation and Actionable Insights

Storage Use Cases

Data Dissemination

Software-Defined Infrastructures and Software-Defined Environments

Building Blocks of Software-Defined Data Centers

Software-Defined Networking

The Key Motivations for SDN

Tending Toward Network Virtualization

The Need of SDN for the Cloud

Software-Defined Storage

Cloud-Based Big Data Storage

Key Characteristics of Software-Defined Storage



Big Data Analytics for Real-Time City Insights


Data Analytics and Intelligent Cities

The Prominent Sources of Big Data

Describing the Big Data World

Big Data Characteristics

A Perspective on Big Data Computing

Why Big Data Computing?

The Application Domains

Describing Big Data Analytics

The Big Trends of BDA

BDA Use Cases

Machine Data Analytics by Splunk®

Open Data for Next-Generation Cities

Edge Data for Cities of the Future

Edge Data for Smarter Cities

Edge Data for Smart Retailers

Edge Data for Smart Automobiles

Edge Data for Smart Manufacturing

Edge Data for Facilities and Asset Management

Integrated BDA Platforms

Software-Defined Infrastructures for BDA

Civitas: The Smart City Middleware

Hitachi Smart City Platform

Data Collection

Data Analysis

Application Coordination

BDA Frameworks and Infrastructure

Apache Hadoop Software Framework

NoSQL Databases



The Internet of Things for Connected and Cognitive Cities


Envisioning the IoT Era

Emerging IoT Trends

Deeper Digitization Toward Smart Objects

The Growing Device Ecosystem

Software-Defined Cloud Infrastructures

Big Data Analytics

The IoT Reference Architecture

Smart City Communication Architecture

Network Architectures for IoT Applications

IP-Based Connectivity Models

Prominent IoT Technologies

The IoT: The Key Results

The Advantages of the IoT Concept for Smart Cities

The Co-Creation of IoT-Enabled Services for Smarter Cities

Examples of IoT-Inspired Services Co-Created and Tested

The Role of Advanced Sensing in Smart Cities

Sensors Everywhere and in Everything

Sensing as a Service for Cities of the Future

Popular IoT/M2M Applications

A Typical IoT Application

Health of Buildings

Smart Energy

Smart Healthcare

Smart Home Security

Smart Cargo Handling

Smart Traffic Management

Smart Inventory and Replenishment Management

Smart Cash Payment

Smart Tracking

Smart Displays

Smart Asset Management

Air Quality

Noise Monitoring

Traffic Congestion

Smart Parking

Cyber Physical System for Smart City Needs

CPS for Emergency Response

Smart City Platforms and Frameworks

A Communication Platform for Smart Cities

A Smart City M2M Platform

A Framework of Sensor-Cloud Integration

Homeland Security and the Sensor Cloud



Social Media Analytics for People Empowerment


Building a Framework for the Use of Social Media Analytics for Business

Social Media Content Metrics

Different Dimensions of Social Media

Revenue and Sales Lead Generation

Customer Relationship and Customer


Social Media Tools

Social Media Analytics Architecture for Intelligent Cities

Social Media Analytics for City Government

Design of an Architecture for Sentiment Analysis in Intelligent Cities

Use of IBM’s Social Sentiment Index to Identify the Factors Impacting People in Five Canadian Cities

Spain Uses Sentiment Analysis to Track and Improve Standards of City Services

Sentiment Analysis to Track the Mood of City Residents Uses Sentiment Analysis to Track Food Mood of Citizens

Smart Policing Using Sensors and Domain Awareness System

Case Study of Sentiment Analysis Implementation in an Intelligent City



Intelligent Cities: Strategy-Making and Governance


IT Initiatives for Intelligent City Governance

IT-Enabled City Strategies


Key Challenges for E-Government

IT-Enabled Social Initiatives

Urban Action Forums

Ubiquitous or Intelligent City

Ubiquitous Connectivity

Omnipresent Devices

Collaboration Platforms

Cloud Computing

Open Standards and Service-Oriented Architecture

Geospatial Platforms

Neogeography in U-Cities

Internet of Things

Advanced Analytics

Open Access to Public Data

Digitally Controlled Devices

Social Media Networking

Strategic Governance Framework for the Implementation of U-Cities

City Objectives

City Indicators

City Components

City Content



Smart Homes and Buildings


Elucidating Technological Advancements

Key Drivers for Smarter Homes and Buildings

Prominent Use Cases of Smarter Homes and Buildings

Smarter Homes and Building Elements

Envisioning Smarter Homes and Buildings: The Role of the Cloud Theme

Smarter Environments Are Instrumented, Interconnected, and Intelligent

Smarter Home/Building Capabilities

Smarter Home/Building Services in Clouds

Benefits of Cloud-Enabled Smarter Homes

Envisioning Service Delivery Platforms

Building Management System

IP-Based Convergence of Building Systems

Smarter Homes: Architectural Styles, Patterns, and Approaches

Smarter Homes—Middleware Platforms

Smarter Home Frameworks

Home Integration Standards: Industry Strength and Proprietary



Smart Home Solutions


Smart Energy, Utility, and Transport


Smart Energy

Smart Grids

Energy Harvesting

The Need for Big Data Analytics for Smarter Grids

Envisioned Energy Grid Services for Smart Cities

Smart Lighting

Smart Lighting Approaches

Wireless Lighting Control Systems

Smart Transport

Electric Vehicles

Smarter Vehicles

Technological Implications for Vehicles

Vehicle Connectivity Platforms, Tools, and Applications

Use Cases of Technology-Inspired Vehicles

An Assortment of Vehicle-Centric Applications

Approaches for Smarter Transportation

Predict Demand and Optimizing Capacity, Assets, and Infrastructure

Improve the End-to-End Experience for Travelers

Increase Operational Efficiency While Reducing the Environmental Impact

Ensure Safety and Security

Intelligent Transport Systems

Smart Utilities

Smart Metering



Intelligent Airports


Inadequate Capacity

Dissatisfied Passengers

Increased Regulatory Requirements

Evolution of Airport Infrastructure

Airport 1.0

Airport 2.0

Personal Technology/Processes

Technology/Processes to Streamline the Passenger Journey

Technology/Processes to Enhance Passenger Experience

Processes for Increased Leisure Experience

IT for the Benefits of Passengers

Envisioning Airports of the Future (Airport 3.0)

Conceptual Models

Infrastructure Models

Revenue-Generating Models

Public–Private Partnerships

Technological Models



Next-Generation Healthcare Systems


Cloud Services in the Healthcare Sector

Electronic Storage of Medical Records

Office Productivity Solutions

Health Information Exchange

Collaboration Solution for Physicians

Clinical Information System

Big Data Analytics in Healthcare Sector

Support Research in Genomics and Other Healthcare Projects

Transform Data from Information

Supporting Self-Care

Support for Providers

Increase Awareness

Pool Data to Build a Better Ecosystem



Security Management of Intelligent Cities


Security Requirements of an Intelligent City

Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Triad

Authentication, Authorization, and Audit Trial Framework


Trusted Computing Base


Security Concerns of Cloud Platforms

Virtual Machine Segmentation

Database Segmentation

VM Introspection

Distributed Denial of Service

Hypervisor-Based Security Threats

Unauthorized Alteration of VM Image Files

VM Theft

Inter-VM Attacks

Instant-On Gaps


Security Threats to Big Data

Distributed Programming Frameworks

Use of NoSQL Databases

Storage Tiering

Data Source Validation

Privacy Concerns

Requirements of the Security Management Framework for Big Data

Agile Scale-Out Infrastructure

Security Analytics

Threat Monitoring and Intelligence

Security Threats in Smart Phones

Security Solutions for Mobile Devices

Security Concerns in the Internet of Things Platform

Security Measures for IoT Platforms/Devices

Secure Booting

Mandatory Access Control Mechanisms

Device Authentication for Networks

Device-Specific Firewalls

Controlled Mechanism to Ensure Application of Security Patches and Upgrades

Security Threats to Different IT-Based Infrastructure Components of an Intelligent City

Security Threats in Intelligent Transportation Systems

Security Threats in Intelligent/Smart Grids and Other Infrastructure Components of an Intelligent City

Best Practices to Be Adopted for a Secure Intelligent City




About the Authors

Pethuru Raj PhD has been working as a cloud infrastructure architect in the IBM Global Cloud Center of Excellence, IBM India Bangalore. Previously he worked as TOGAF-certified enterprise architecture consultant in Wipro Consulting Services Division, Bangalore. He also had a fruitful stint as a lead architect in the corporate research division of Robert Bosch, India. He has gained thirteen years of IT industry experience.

Dr. Raj finished the CSIR-sponsored PhD degree in Anna University, Chennai, and continued the UGC-sponsored postdoctoral research in the department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore until 1999. Thereafter, he was granted a couple of international research fellowships (JSPS and JST) to work as a research scientist for three years in two leading Japanese universities. His technical competencies lie in service oriented architecture, cloud computing, enterprise architecture, context-aware computing and machine-to-machine integration, Big Data Analytics, Smart Cities, and business integration methods.

He has contributed book chapters for a number of high-quality technology books edited by internationally acclaimed professors and professionals. The CRC Press, USA, released his first book titled Cloud Enterprise Architecture in 2012. He has edited a book on the title Cloud Infrastructures for Big Data Analytics. He maintains an Information Technology (IT) portal at

Anupama Raman is currently working as Content Lead for Smart Cities Brand of IBM and she is a part of Software group, Industry Solutions of IBM India. Prior to this, she was working with EMC Data Storage. She is a certified Storage Area Networking expert and is also a certified Data Center Architect. She is also certified in Cloud infrastructure and Services Management. Apart from these technical certifications, in the field of writing. She is a certified Information mapping professional and in the field of project management, she is a certified Scrum master. She holds an M.Tech degree in Computer Science and Engineering and is currently pursuing an MBA in IT Management. She has presented and published over twenty research papers in various national and international conferences and she has also written numerous book chapters with various national and international publishers.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Information Technology
COMPUTERS / Networking / General
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / City Planning & Urban Development