1st Edition

Interfacial Physical Chemistry of High-Temperature Melts

By Kusuhiro Mukai, Taishi Matsushita Copyright 2020
    136 Pages 62 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    134 Pages 62 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This English translation of a well-known Japanese book covers interfacial physicochemistry in materials science, especially for iron- and steelmaking processes. Interfacial Physical Chemistry of High-Temperature Melts bridges the gap between the basics and applications of physicochemistry.

    The book begins with an overview of the fundamentals of interfacial physical chemistry and discusses surface tension, describing the derivation of important equations to guide readers to a deep understanding of the phenomenon. The book then goes on to introduce interfacial properties of high-temperature melts, especially the Marangoni effect, and discusses applications to materials processing at high temperature focusing on recent research results by the author and the co-workers.

    This book is aimed at researchers, graduate students, and professionals in materials processing.

    Video clips of in-situ observation including experiments under microgravity condition and x-ray observation are available for download on the publisher's website to allow for a deeper understanding.

    Preface to the Japanese edition

    Preface to the English edition

    1. Introduction

    1.1 Interfacial physical chemistry

    1.2 Interface-evolved world

    1.3 Relation to engineering

    2. Fundamentals of treating the interface

    2.1 Interface

    2.2 Thermodynamic treatment of the interface

    2.2.1 Gibbs’s method

    2.2.2 Surface tension

    2.2.2.i) Thermodynamic interpretation of surface tension

    2.2.2.ii) Surface tension and the position of the dividing surface

    2.2.2.iii) Surface tension and radius of curvature

    2.2.2.iv) Surface tension and binding energy

    2.2.2.v) Surface tension and temperature

    2.2.2.vi) Surface tension and surface stress

    2.3 Mechanical treatment of interface

    2.3.1 Mechanical interpretation of surface tension

    2.3.2 Laplace’s equation

    2.3.3 Marangoni effect

    2.4 Interfacial phenomena at equilibrium

    2.4.1 Adsorption

    2.4.2 Wetting

    2.4.2.i) Classification of wetting

    2.4.2.ii) Measure of wetting

    2.4.2.iii) Extension of wetting concept

    2.4.3 Effect of curvature

    2.4.3.i) Vapor pressure

    2.4.3.ii) Heat of vaporization

    2.4.3.iii) Melting point

    2.4.3.iv) Solubility

    2.4.3.v) Phase rule

    2.4.4 Nucleation

    2.4.4.i) Homogeneous nucleation

    2.4.4.ii) Heterogeneous nucleation

    2.5 Interfacial properties and phenomena at non-equilibrium

    2.5.1 Interfacial properties

    2.5.1.i) Surface tension

    2.5.1.ii) Interfacial tension

    2.5.1.iii) Wettability (contact angle)

    2.5.2 Interfacial phenomenon

    2.5.2.i) Nucleation rate

    2.5.2.ii) Marangoni effect

    2.5.2.iii) Dispersion

    2.5.2.iv) Penetration

    3. Interfacial property of high-temperature melts

    3.1 Notes on measurement values

    3.1.1 Measurement error

    3.1.2 Difficulties in measurements

    3.1.2.i) Surface tension of metal

    3.1.2.ii) Surface tension of slag

    3.1.2.iii) Interfacial tension between slag and metal

    3.1.2.iv) Wettability (contact angle)

    3.2 Surface/interfacial tension

    3.2.1 Surface tension of metal

    3.2.2 Surface tension of slag

    3.2.3 Slag/metal interfacial tension

    3.3 Wettability between metal and ceramics

    3.3.1 Characteristics of wetting between molten metal and oxide

    3.3.2 Effect of chemical composition of metal and oxide

    3.3.3 Physical form and factor of surface

    3.3.3.i) Surface roughness

    3.3.3.ii) Structure of interface

    3.4 Databook and review paper

    3.4.1 Databook

    3.4.2 Review

    4. Interfacial phenomena of high-temperature melts and materials processing

    4.1 Interfacial phenomena in the steel refining process

    4.1.1 Wetting

    4.1.1.i) Behavior of injected argon gas in continuous casting process

    4.1.1.ii) Penetration† of slag and metal into refractory

    4.1.2 Nucleation of alumina in aluminum deoxidation processes in molten steel

    4.1.3 Others

    4.1.3.i) Dispersion

    4.1.3.ii) Adsorption

    4.2 Marangoni effect in materials processing

    4.2.1 Direct observation of Marangoni effect occurring in high-temperature melts

    4.2.1.i) Marangoni convection due to temperature gradient

    4.2.1.ii) Expansion and contraction of a slag droplet caused by electric potential change

    4.2.1.iii) Motion of slag film caused by concentration gradient

    4.2.2 Local corrosion of refractory

    4.2.2.i) Oxide refractory

    4.2.2.ii) Oxide-non-oxide composite refractory

    4.2.3 Motion of fine particles in liquid under interfacial tension gradient

    4.2.3.i) Motion of fine bubbles in aqueous solution under surface tension gradient

    4.2.3.ii) Engulfment and pushing of fine particles at the solidification interface

    4.2.3.iii) Clogging of immersion nozzle


    Prof. Kusuhiro Mukai was a professor emeritus at the Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan and Northeastern University, China. He received his Ph.D. from Nagoya University (1968) and became an associate professor at the Kyushu Institute of Technology (1969). He was a guest professor at University of Toronto, Canada (1985) and Imperial College London, UK (2005). He was a professor at the Kyushu Institute of Technology from 1986 to 2004. His research area was high-temperature physical chemistry.

    Assoc. Prof. Taishi Matsushita has been an associate professor in the Department of Materials and Manufacturing, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden since 2012. He received his Ph.D. from Kyushu Institute of Technology (2003) and became a senior researcher at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden in the same year. He was given the title Docent (corresponding to associate professor) from KTH in 2008. His research area is high-temperature physical chemistry.